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Infinite state model checking by abstract interpretation and program specialisation
 LogicBased Program Synthesis and Transformation. Proceedings of LOPSTR’99, LNCS 1817
, 2000
"... Abstract. We illustrate the use of logic programming techniques for finite model checking of CTL formulae. We present a technique for infinite state model checking of safety properties based upon logic program specialisation and analysis techniques. The power of the approach is illustrated on severa ..."
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Cited by 67 (27 self)
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Abstract. We illustrate the use of logic programming techniques for finite model checking of CTL formulae. We present a technique for infinite state model checking of safety properties based upon logic program specialisation and analysis techniques. The power of the approach is illustrated on several examples. For that, the efficient tools logen and ecce are used. We discuss how this approach has to be extended to handle more complicated infinite state systems and to handle arbitrary CTL formulae. 1
Logic program specialisation through partial deduction: Control issues
 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2002
"... Program specialisation aims at improving the overall performance of programs by performing source to source transformations. A common approach within functional and logic programming, known respectively as partial evaluation and partial deduction, is to exploit partial knowledge about the input. It ..."
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Cited by 66 (13 self)
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Program specialisation aims at improving the overall performance of programs by performing source to source transformations. A common approach within functional and logic programming, known respectively as partial evaluation and partial deduction, is to exploit partial knowledge about the input. It is achieved through a wellautomated application of parts of the BurstallDarlington unfold/fold transformation framework. The main challenge in developing systems is to design automatic control that ensures correctness, efficiency, and termination. This survey and tutorial presents the main developments in controlling partial deduction over the past 10 years and analyses their respective merits and shortcomings. It ends with an assessment of current achievements and sketches some remaining research challenges.
Offline specialisation in Prolog using a handwritten compiler generator
, 2004
"... The so called âcogen approachâ to program specialisation, writing a compiler generator instead of a specialiser, has been used with considerable success in partial evaluation of both functional and imperative languages. This paper demonstrates that this approach is also applicable to partial eva ..."
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Cited by 47 (23 self)
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The so called âcogen approachâ to program specialisation, writing a compiler generator instead of a specialiser, has been used with considerable success in partial evaluation of both functional and imperative languages. This paper demonstrates that this approach is also applicable to partial evaluation of logic programming languages, also called partial deduction. Selfapplication has not been as much in focus in logic programming as for functional and imperative languages, and the attempts to selfapply partial deduction systems have, of yet, not been altogether that successful. So, especially for partial deduction, the cogen approach should prove to have a considerable importance when it comes to practical applications. This paper first develops a generic offline partial deduction technique for pure logic programs, notably supporting partially instantiated datastructures via binding types. From this a very efficient cogen is derived, which generates very efficient generating extensions (executing up to several orders of magnitude faster than current online systems) which in turn perform very good and nontrivial specialisation, even rivalling existing online systems. All this is supported by extensive benchmarks. Finally, it is shown how the cogen can be extended to directly support a large part of Prologâs declarative and nondeclarative features and how semionline specialisation can be efficiently integrated.
Homeomorphic embedding for online termination of symbolic methods
 In The essence of computation, volume 2566 of LNCS
, 2002
"... Abstract. Wellquasi orders in general, and homeomorphic embedding in particular, have gained popularity to ensure the termination of techniques for program analysis, specialisation, transformation, and verification. In this paper we survey and discuss this use of homeomorphic embedding and clarify ..."
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Cited by 43 (7 self)
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Abstract. Wellquasi orders in general, and homeomorphic embedding in particular, have gained popularity to ensure the termination of techniques for program analysis, specialisation, transformation, and verification. In this paper we survey and discuss this use of homeomorphic embedding and clarify the advantages of such an approach over one using wellfounded orders. We also discuss various extensions of the homeomorphic embedding relation. We conclude with a study of homeomorphic embedding in the context of metaprogramming, presenting some new (positive and negative) results and open problems.
The NarrowingDriven Approach to Functional Logic Program Specialization
 New Generation Computing
, 2002
"... Partial evaluation is a semanticsbased program optimization technique which has been investigated within di#erent programming paradigms and applied to a wide variety of languages. Recently, a partial evaluation framework for functional logic programs has been proposed. ..."
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Cited by 37 (19 self)
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Partial evaluation is a semanticsbased program optimization technique which has been investigated within di#erent programming paradigms and applied to a wide variety of languages. Recently, a partial evaluation framework for functional logic programs has been proposed.
Coverability of reset Petri nets and other wellstructured transition systems by partial deduction
 Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Logic (CL’2000), LNAI 1861
, 2000
"... Abstract. In recent work it has been shown that infinite state model checking can be performed by a combination of partial deduction of logic programs and abstract interpretation. It has also been shown that partial deduction is powerful enough to mimic certain algorithms to decide coverability prop ..."
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Cited by 30 (15 self)
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Abstract. In recent work it has been shown that infinite state model checking can be performed by a combination of partial deduction of logic programs and abstract interpretation. It has also been shown that partial deduction is powerful enough to mimic certain algorithms to decide coverability properties of Petri nets. These algorithms are forward algorithms and hard to scale up to deal with more complicated systems. Recently, it has been proposed to use a backward algorithm scheme instead. This scheme is applicable to so–called well–structured transition systems and was successfully used, e.g., to solve coverability problems for reset Petri nets. In this paper, we discuss how partial deduction can mimic many of these backward algorithms as well. We prove this link in particular for reset Petri nets and Petri nets with transfer and doubling arcs. We thus establish a surprising link between algorithms in Petri net theory and program specialisation, and also shed light on the power of using logic program specialisation for infinite state model checking. 1
Solving Coverability Problems of Petri Nets by Partial Deduction
 Proceedings of PPDP’2000
, 2000
"... In recent work it has been shown that infinite state model checking can be performed by a combination of partial deduction of logic programs and abstract interpretation. This paper focuses on a particular class of problems  coverability for (infinite state) Petri nets  and shows how existing tech ..."
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Cited by 29 (19 self)
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In recent work it has been shown that infinite state model checking can be performed by a combination of partial deduction of logic programs and abstract interpretation. This paper focuses on a particular class of problems  coverability for (infinite state) Petri nets  and shows how existing techniques and tools for declarative programs can be successfully applied. In particular, we show that a restricted form of partial deduction is already powerful enough to decide all coverability properties of Petri Nets. We also prove that two particular instances of partial deduction exactly compute the KarpMiller tree as well as Finkel's minimal coverability set. We thus establish a link between algorithms for Petri nets and logic program specialisation.
Automated Strategies for Specializing Constraint Logic Programs
 LOPSTR 2000, LNCS 2042
"... We consider the problem of specializing constraint logic programs w.r.t. constrained queries. We follow a transformational approach based on rules and strategies. The use of the rules ensures that the specialized program is equivalent to the initial program w.r.t. a given constrained query. The stra ..."
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Cited by 14 (12 self)
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We consider the problem of specializing constraint logic programs w.r.t. constrained queries. We follow a transformational approach based on rules and strategies. The use of the rules ensures that the specialized program is equivalent to the initial program w.r.t. a given constrained query. The strategies guide the application of the rules so to derive an efficient specialized program. In this paper we address various issues concerning the development of an automated transformation strategy. In particular, we consider the problems of when and how we should unfold, replace constraints, introduce generalized clauses, and apply the contextual constraint replacement rule. We propose a solution to these problems by adapting to our framework various techniques developed in the field of constraint programming, partial evaluation, and abstract interpretation. In particular, we use: (i) suitable solvers for simplifying constraints, (ii) wellquasiorders for ensuring the termination...
Abstract Interpretation of PIC Programs through Logic Programming
 In SCAM ’06: Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Workshop on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM’06
, 2006
"... A logic based general approach to abstract interpretation of lowlevel machine programs is reported. It is based on modelling the behavior of the machine as a logic program. General purpose program analysis and transformation of logic programs, such as partial evaluation and convex hull analysis, ar ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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A logic based general approach to abstract interpretation of lowlevel machine programs is reported. It is based on modelling the behavior of the machine as a logic program. General purpose program analysis and transformation of logic programs, such as partial evaluation and convex hull analysis, are applied to the logic based model of the machine. A small PIC microcontroller is used as a case study. An emulator for this microcontroller is written in Prolog, and standard programming transformations and analysis techniques are used to specialise this emulator with respect to a given PIC program. The specialised emulator can now be further analysed to gain insight into the given program for the PIC microcontroller. The method describes a general framework for applying abstractions, illustrated here by linear constraints and convex hull analysis, to logic programs. Using these techniques on the specialised PIC emulator, it is possible to obtain constraints on and linear relations between data registers, enabling detection of for instance overflows, branch conditions and so on. 1
Convex Hull Abstractions in Specialization of CLP Programs
"... Abstract. We introduce an abstract domain consisting of atomic formulas constrained by linear arithmetic constraints (or convex hulls). This domain is used in an algorithm for specialization of constraint logic programs. The algorithm incorporates in a single phase both topdown goal directed propag ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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Abstract. We introduce an abstract domain consisting of atomic formulas constrained by linear arithmetic constraints (or convex hulls). This domain is used in an algorithm for specialization of constraint logic programs. The algorithm incorporates in a single phase both topdown goal directed propagation and bottomup answer propagation, and uses a widening on the convex hull domain to ensure termination. We give examples to show the precision gained by this approach over other methods in the literature for specializing constraint logic programs. The specialization method can also be used for ordinary logic programs containing arithmetic, as well as constraint logic programs. Assignments, inequalities and equalities with arithmetic expressions can be interpreted as constraints during specialization, thus increasing the amount of specialization that can be achieved. 1