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Choice and uniformity in weak applicative theories
 Logic Colloquium ’01
, 2005
"... Abstract. We are concerned with first order theories of operations, based on combinatory logic and extended with the type W of binary words. The theories include forms of “positive ” and “bounded ” induction on W and naturally characterize primitive recursive and polytime functions (respectively). W ..."
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Abstract. We are concerned with first order theories of operations, based on combinatory logic and extended with the type W of binary words. The theories include forms of “positive ” and “bounded ” induction on W and naturally characterize primitive recursive and polytime functions (respectively). We prove that the recursive content of the theories under investigation (i.e. the associated class of provably total functions on W) is invariant under addition of 1. an axiom of choice for operations and a uniformity principle, restricted to positive conditions; 2. a (form of) selfreferential truth, providing a fixed point theorem for predicates. As to the proof methods, we apply a kind of internal forcing semantics, nonstandard variants of realizability and cutelimination. §1. Introduction. In this paper, we deal with theories of abstract computable operations, underlying the socalled explicit mathematics, introduced by Feferman in the midseventies as a logical frame to formalize Bishop’s style constructive mathematics ([18], [19]). Following a common usage, these theories
On the Uniform Weak König's Lemma
, 1999
"... The socalled weak König's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an in nite path b in any in nite binary tree (given by a representing function f ). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higherorder arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics b ..."
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The socalled weak König's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an in nite path b in any in nite binary tree (given by a representing function f ). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higherorder arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics but are 2  conservative over primitive recursive arithmetic PRA (and even weaker fragments of arithmetic). In [10] we established such conservation results relative to nite type extensions PRA of PRA (together with a quanti erfree axiom of choice schema). In this setting one can consider also a uniform version UWKL of WKL which asserts the existence of a functional which selects uniformly in a given in nite binary tree f an in nite path f of that tree. This uniform version of WKL is of interest in the context of explicit mathematics as developed by S. Feferman. The elimination process in [10] actually can be used to eliminate even this uniform weak König's lemma provided that PRA only has a quanti erfree rule of extensionality QFER instead of the full axioms (E) of extensionality for all nite types. In this paper we show that in the presence of (E), UWKL is much stronger than WKL: whereas WKL remains to be 2 conservative over PRA, PRA + (E)+UWKL contains (and is conservative over) full Peano arithmetic PA.
The structure of nuprl’s type theory
, 1997
"... on the World Wide Web (\the Web") (www.cs.cornell.edu/Info/NuPrl/nuprl.html) ..."
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on the World Wide Web (\the Web") (www.cs.cornell.edu/Info/NuPrl/nuprl.html)
Typical ambiguity: trying to have your cake and eat it too
 the proceedings of the conference Russell 2001
"... Would ye both eat your cake and have your cake? ..."
Why the constant `undefined'?  Logics of partial terms for strict and nonstrict functional programming languages
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 1998
"... In this article we explain two di#erent operational interpretations of functional programs by two di#erent logics. The programs are simply typed #terms with pairs, projections, ifthenelse, and least fixed point recursion. A logic for callbyvalue evaluation and a logic for callbyname evaluation ..."
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In this article we explain two di#erent operational interpretations of functional programs by two di#erent logics. The programs are simply typed #terms with pairs, projections, ifthenelse, and least fixed point recursion. A logic for callbyvalue evaluation and a logic for callbyname evaluation are obtained as as extensions of a system which we call the basic logic of partial terms (BPT). This logic is suitable to prove properties of programs that are valid under both strict and nonstrict evaluation. We use methods from denotational semantics to show that the two extensions of BPT are adequate for callbyvalue and callbyname evaluation. Neither the programs nor the logics contain the constant `undefined'. 1
Universes in Explicit Mathematics
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1999
"... This paper deals with universes in explicit mathematics. After introducing some basic definitions, the limit axiom and possible ordering principles for universes are discussed. Later, we turn to least universes, strictness and name induction. Special emphasis is put on theories for explicit mathemat ..."
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This paper deals with universes in explicit mathematics. After introducing some basic definitions, the limit axiom and possible ordering principles for universes are discussed. Later, we turn to least universes, strictness and name induction. Special emphasis is put on theories for explicit mathematics with universes which are prooftheoretically equivalent to Feferman's T 0 . 1 Introduction In some form or another, universes play an important role in many systems of set theory and higher order arithmetic, in various formalizations of constructive mathematics and in logics for computation. One aspect of universes is that they expand the set or type formation principles in a natural and perspicuous way and provide greater expressive power and prooftheoretic strength. The general idea behind universes is quite simple: suppose that we are given a formal system Th comprising certain set (or type) existence principles which are justified on specific philosophical grounds. Then it may be a...
A Theory of Classes for a Functional Language with Effects
 In Proceedings of CSL92, volume 702 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1993
"... this paper we introduce a variable typed logic of effects (i.e. a logic of effects where classes can be defined and quantified over) inspired by the variable type systems of Feferman [3, 4] for purely functional languages. A similar extension incorporating nonlocal control operations was introduced ..."
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this paper we introduce a variable typed logic of effects (i.e. a logic of effects where classes can be defined and quantified over) inspired by the variable type systems of Feferman [3, 4] for purely functional languages. A similar extension incorporating nonlocal control operations was introduced in [27]. The logic we present provides an expressive language for defining specifications and constraints and for studying properties and program equivalences, in a uniform framework. Thus it has an advantage over a plethora of systems in the literature that aim to capture solitary aspects of computation. The theory also allows for the construction of inductively defined sets and derivation of the corresponding induction principles. Classes can be used to express, inter alia, the nonexpansiveness of terms [29]. Other effects can also be represented within the system. These include read/write effects and various forms of interference [24]. The first order fragment is described in [16] where it is used to resolve the denotationally problematic examples of [17]. In our language atoms, references and lambda abstractions are all first class values and as such are storable. This has several consequences. Firstly, mutation and variable binding are separate and so we avoid the problems that typically arise (e.g. in Hoare's and dynamic logic) from the conflation of program variables and logical variables. Secondly, the equality and sharing of references (aliasing) is easily expressed and reasoned about. Thirdly, the combination of mutable references and lambda abstractions allows us to study object based programming within our framework. Our atomic formulas express the (operational or observational) equivalence of programs `a la Plotkin [23]. Neither Hoare's logic nor Dynamic logi...
Partial computations in constructive type theory
 JOURNAL OF LOGIC AND COMPUTATION
, 1991
"... Constructive type theory as conceived by Per MartinLöf has a very rich type system, but partial functions cannot be typed. This also makes it impossible to directly write recursive programs. In this paper a constructive type theory Red is defined which includes a partial type constructor A; objects ..."
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Constructive type theory as conceived by Per MartinLöf has a very rich type system, but partial functions cannot be typed. This also makes it impossible to directly write recursive programs. In this paper a constructive type theory Red is defined which includes a partial type constructor A; objects in the type A may diverge, but if they converge, they must be members of A. A fixed point typing principle is given to allow typing of recursive functions. The extraction paradigm of type theory, whereby programs are automatically extracted from constructive proofs, is extended to allow extraction of fixed points. There is a Scott fixed point induction principle for reasoning about these functions. Soundness of the theory is proven. Type theory becomes a more expressive programming logic as a result.
Some Theories With Positive Induction of Ordinal Strength ...
 JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC
, 1996
"... This paper deals with: (i) the theory ID # 1 which results from c ID 1 by restricting induction on the natural numbers to formulas which are positive in the fixed point constants, (ii) the theory BON() plus various forms of positive induction, and (iii) a subtheory of Peano arithmetic with ord ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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This paper deals with: (i) the theory ID # 1 which results from c ID 1 by restricting induction on the natural numbers to formulas which are positive in the fixed point constants, (ii) the theory BON() plus various forms of positive induction, and (iii) a subtheory of Peano arithmetic with ordinals in which induction on the natural numbers is restricted to formulas which are \Sigma in the ordinals. We show that these systems have prooftheoretic strength '!0.
Program Transformation via Contextual Assertions
 In Logic, Language and Computation. Festschrift in Honor of Satoru Takasu
, 1994
"... . In this paper we describe progress towards a theory of tranformational program development. The transformation rules are based on a theory of contextual equivalence for functional languages with imperative features. Such notions of equivalence are fundamental for the process of program specificati ..."
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. In this paper we describe progress towards a theory of tranformational program development. The transformation rules are based on a theory of contextual equivalence for functional languages with imperative features. Such notions of equivalence are fundamental for the process of program specification, derivation, transformation, refinement and other forms of code generation and optimization. This paper is dedicated to Professor Satoru Takasu. 1 Introduction This paper describes progress towards a theory of program development by systematic refinement beginning with a clean simple program thought of as a specification. Transformations include reuse of storage, and rerepresentation of abstract data. The transformation rules are based on a theory of constrained equivalence for functional languages with imperative features (i.e. Lisp, Scheme or ML). Such notions of equivalence are fundamental for the process of program specification, derivation, transformation, refinement, and other for...