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30
Genuinely functional user interfaces
 In Proceedings of the 2001 Haskell Workshop
, 2001
"... Fruit is a new graphical user interface library for Haskell based on a formal model of user interfaces. The model identifies signals (continuous timevarying values) and signal transformers (pure functions mapping signals to signals) as core abstractions, and defines GUIs compositionally as signal t ..."
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Cited by 53 (3 self)
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Fruit is a new graphical user interface library for Haskell based on a formal model of user interfaces. The model identifies signals (continuous timevarying values) and signal transformers (pure functions mapping signals to signals) as core abstractions, and defines GUIs compositionally as signal transformers. In this paper, we describe why we think a formal denotational model of user interfaces is useful, present our model and prototype library implementation, and show some example programs that demonstrate novel features of our library.
A scalable formal method for design and automatic checking of user interfaces
 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
, 2005
"... ABSTRACT: The paper addresses the formal specification, design and implementation of the behavioral component of graphical user interfaces. The complex sequences of visual events and actions that constitute dialogs are specified by means of modular, communicating grammars called VEG (Visual Event G ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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ABSTRACT: The paper addresses the formal specification, design and implementation of the behavioral component of graphical user interfaces. The complex sequences of visual events and actions that constitute dialogs are specified by means of modular, communicating grammars called VEG (Visual Event Grammars), which extend traditional BNF grammars to make them more convenient to model dialogs. A VEG specification is independent of the actual layout of the GUI, but it can easily be integrated with various layout design toolkits. Moreover, a VEG specification may be verified with the model checker SPIN, in order to test consistency and correctness, to detect deadlocks and unreachable states, and also to generate test cases for validation purposes. Efficient code is automatically generated by the VEG toolkit, based on compiler technology. Realistic applications have been specified, verified and implemented, like a Notepadstyle editor, a graph construction library and a large real application to medical software. It is also argued that VEG can be used to specify and test voice interfaces and multimodal dialogs. The major contribution of our work is blending together a set of features coming from GUI design, compilers, software engineering and formal verification. Even though we do not claim novelty in each of the techniques adopted for VEG, they have been united into a toolkit supporting all GUI design phases, i.e., specification, design, verification and validation, linking to applications and coding. 1
An extensible proof text editor
 In Logic for Programming and Automated Reasoning, volume 1955 of LNCS
, 2000
"... ..."
Erratic Fudgets: A Semantic Theory for an Embedded Coordination Language
 SCIENCE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
, 2003
"... The powerful abstraction mechanisms of functional programming languages provide the means to develop domainspecific programming languages within the language itself. Typically, this is realised by designing a set of combinators (higherorder reusable programs) for an application area, and by constr ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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The powerful abstraction mechanisms of functional programming languages provide the means to develop domainspecific programming languages within the language itself. Typically, this is realised by designing a set of combinators (higherorder reusable programs) for an application area, and by constructing individual applications by combining and coordinating individual combinators. This paper is concerned with a successful example of such an embedded programming language, namely Fudgets, a library of combinators for building graphical user interfaces in the lazy functional language Haskell. The Fudget library has been used to build a number of substantial applications, including a web browser and a proof editor interface to a proof checker for constructive type theory. This paper develops a semantic theory for the nondeterministic stream processors that are at the heart of the Fudget concept. The interaction of two features of stream processors makes the development of such a semantic theory problematic: (i) the sharing of computation provided by the lazy evaluation mechanism of the underlying host language, and (ii) the addition of nondeterministic choice needed to handle the natural concurrency that reactive applications entail We demonstrate that this combination of features in a higherorder functional language can be tamed to provide a tractable semantic theory and induction principles suitable for reasoning about contextual equivalence of Fudgets.
Combining Testing and Proving in Dependent Type Theory
 16th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLs 2003
, 2003
"... We extend the proof assistant Agda/Alfa for dependent type theory with a modi ed version of Claessen and Hughes' tool QuickCheck for random testing of functional programs. In this way we combine testing and proving in one system. Testing is used for debugging programs and speci cations be ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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We extend the proof assistant Agda/Alfa for dependent type theory with a modi ed version of Claessen and Hughes' tool QuickCheck for random testing of functional programs. In this way we combine testing and proving in one system. Testing is used for debugging programs and speci cations before a proof is attempted. Furthermore, we demonstrate by example how testing can be used repeatedly during proof for testing suitable subgoals. Our tool uses testdata generators which are de ned inside Agda/Alfa. We can therefore use the type system to prove properties about them, in particular surjectivity stating that all possible test cases can indeed be generated.
Total Parser Combinators
, 2009
"... A monadic parser combinator library which guarantees termination of parsing, while still allowing many forms of left recursion, is described. The library’s interface is similar to that of many other parser combinator libraries, with two important differences: one is that the interface clearly specif ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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A monadic parser combinator library which guarantees termination of parsing, while still allowing many forms of left recursion, is described. The library’s interface is similar to that of many other parser combinator libraries, with two important differences: one is that the interface clearly specifies which parts of the constructed parsers may be infinite, and which parts have to be finite, using a combination of induction and coinduction; and the other is that the parser type is unusually informative. The library comes with a formal semantics, using which it is proved that the parser combinators are as expressive as possible. The implementation
LTL types FRP: Lineartime temporal logic propositions as types, proofs as functional reactive programs
 In Proc. ACM Workshop Programming Languages meets Program Verification
, 2012
"... Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a form of reactive programming whose model is pure functions over signals. FRP is often expressed in terms of arrows with loops, which is the type class for a Freyd category (that is a premonoidal category with a cartesian centre) equipped with a premonoid ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a form of reactive programming whose model is pure functions over signals. FRP is often expressed in terms of arrows with loops, which is the type class for a Freyd category (that is a premonoidal category with a cartesian centre) equipped with a premonoidal trace. This type system suffices to define the dataflow structure of a reactive program, but does not express its temporal properties. In this paper, we show that Lineartime Temporal Logic (LTL) is a natural extension of the type system for FRP, which constrains the temporal behaviour of reactive programs. We show that a constructive LTL can be defined in a dependently typed functional language, and that reactive programs form proofs of constructive LTL properties. In particular, implication in LTL gives rise to stateless functions on streams, and the “constrains ” modality gives rise to causal functions. We show that reactive programs form a partially traced monoidal category, and hence can be given as a form of arrows with loops, where the type system enforces that only decoupled functions can be looped.
Dynamic optimization for functional reactive programming using generalized algebraic data types
 In Proc. of ICFP’05
, 2005
"... A limited form of dependent types, called Generalized Algebraic Data Types (GADTs), has recently been added to the list of Haskell extensions supported by the Glasgow Haskell Compiler. Despite not being fullfledged dependent types, GADTs still offer considerably enlarged scope for enforcing importa ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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A limited form of dependent types, called Generalized Algebraic Data Types (GADTs), has recently been added to the list of Haskell extensions supported by the Glasgow Haskell Compiler. Despite not being fullfledged dependent types, GADTs still offer considerably enlarged scope for enforcing important code and data invariants statically. Moreover, GADTs offer the tantalizing possibility of writing more efficient programs since capturing invariants statically through the type system sometimes obviates entire layers of dynamic tests and associated data markup. This paper is a case study on the applications of GADTs in the context of Yampa, a domainspecific language for Functional Reactive Programming in the form of a selfoptimizing, arrowbased Haskell combinator library. The paper has two aims. Firstly, to explore what kind of optimizations GADTs make possible in this context. Much of that should also be relevant for other domainspecific embedded language implementations, in particular arrowbased ones. Secondly, as the actual performance impact of the GADTbased optimizations is not obvious, to quantify this impact, both on tailored micro benchmarks, to establish the effectiveness of individual optimizations, and on two fairly large, realistic applications, to gauge the overall impact. The performance gains for the micro benchmarks are substantial. This implies that the Yampa API could be simplified as a number of “precomposed ” primitives that were there mainly for performance reasons are no longer needed. As to the applications, a worthwhile performance gain was obtained in one case whereas the performance was more or less unchanged in the other.
Value Recursion in Monadic Computations
 OGI School of Science and Engineering, OHSU
, 2002
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Parallel Parsing Processes
 J. FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING
"... We derive a combinator library for nondeterministic parsers with a monadic interface. The choice operator is implemented as a breadthfirst search rather than the more common depthfirst search, and can be seen as a parallel composition between two parsing processes. The resulting library is simple ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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We derive a combinator library for nondeterministic parsers with a monadic interface. The choice operator is implemented as a breadthfirst search rather than the more common depthfirst search, and can be seen as a parallel composition between two parsing processes. The resulting library is simple and ecient for "almost deterministic" grammars, which are typical for programming languages and other computing science applications.