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288
An improved data stream summary: The CountMin sketch and its applications
 J. Algorithms
, 2004
"... Abstract. We introduce a new sublinear space data structure—the CountMin Sketch — for summarizing data streams. Our sketch allows fundamental queries in data stream summarization such as point, range, and inner product queries to be approximately answered very quickly; in addition, it can be applie ..."
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Cited by 293 (36 self)
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Abstract. We introduce a new sublinear space data structure—the CountMin Sketch — for summarizing data streams. Our sketch allows fundamental queries in data stream summarization such as point, range, and inner product queries to be approximately answered very quickly; in addition, it can be applied to solve several important problems in data streams such as finding quantiles, frequent items, etc. The time and space bounds we show for using the CM sketch to solve these problems significantly improve those previously known — typically from 1/ε 2 to 1/ε in factor. 1
What’s hot and what’s not: Tracking most frequent items dynamically
 In Proceedings of ACM Principles of Database Systems
, 2003
"... Most database management systems maintain statistics on the underlying relation. One of the important statistics is that of the “hot items ” in the relation: those that appear many times (most frequently, or more than some threshold). For example, endbiased histograms keep the hot items as part of ..."
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Cited by 174 (14 self)
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Most database management systems maintain statistics on the underlying relation. One of the important statistics is that of the “hot items ” in the relation: those that appear many times (most frequently, or more than some threshold). For example, endbiased histograms keep the hot items as part of the histogram and are used in selectivity estimation. Hot items are used as simple outliers in data mining, and in anomaly detection in many applications. We present new methods for dynamically determining the hot items at any time in a relation which is undergoing deletion operations as well as inserts. Our methods maintain small space data structures that monitor the transactions on the relation, and when required, quickly output all hot items, without rescanning the relation in the database. With userspecified probability, all hot items are correctly reported. Our methods rely on ideas from “group testing”. They are simple to implement, and have provable quality, space and time guarantees. Previously known algorithms for this problem that make similar quality and performance guarantees can not handle deletions, and those that handle deletions can not make similar guarantees without rescanning the database. Our experiments with real and synthetic data show that our algorithms are accurate in dynamically tracking the hot items independent of the rate of insertions and deletions.
GPUTeraSort: High Performance Graphics Coprocessor Sorting for Large Database Management
, 2006
"... We present a new algorithm, GPUTeraSort, to sort billionrecord widekey databases using a graphics processing unit (GPU) Our algorithm uses the data and task parallelism on the GPU to perform memoryintensive and computeintensive tasks while the CPU is used to perform I/O and resource management. We ..."
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Cited by 102 (10 self)
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We present a new algorithm, GPUTeraSort, to sort billionrecord widekey databases using a graphics processing unit (GPU) Our algorithm uses the data and task parallelism on the GPU to perform memoryintensive and computeintensive tasks while the CPU is used to perform I/O and resource management. We therefore exploit both the highbandwidth GPU memory interface and the lowerbandwidth CPU main memory interface and achieve higher memory bandwidth than purely CPUbased algorithms. GPUTeraSort is a twophase task pipeline: (1) read disk, build keys, sort using the GPU, generate runs, write disk, and (2) read, merge, write. It also pipelines disk transfers and achieves nearpeak I/O performance. We have tested the performance of GPUTeraSort on billionrecord files using the standard Sort benchmark. In practice, a 3 GHz Pentium IV PC with $265 NVIDIA 7800 GT GPU is significantly faster than optimized CPUbased algorithms on much faster processors, sorting 60GB for a penny; the best reported PennySort priceperformance. These results suggest that a GPU coprocessor can significantly improve performance on large data processing tasks. 1.
Tributaries and deltas: Efficient and robust aggregation in sensor network streams
 In SIGMOD
, 2005
"... Existing energyefficient approaches to innetwork aggregation in sensor networks can be classified into two categories, treebased and multipathbased, with each having unique strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we introduce TributaryDelta, a novel approach that combines the advantages of th ..."
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Cited by 89 (2 self)
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Existing energyefficient approaches to innetwork aggregation in sensor networks can be classified into two categories, treebased and multipathbased, with each having unique strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we introduce TributaryDelta, a novel approach that combines the advantages of the tree and multipath approaches by running them simultaneously in different regions of the network. We present schemes for adjusting the regions in response to changes in network conditions, and show how many useful aggregates can be readily computed within this new framework. We then show how a difficult aggregate for this context— finding frequent items—can be efficiently computed within the framework. To this end, we devise the first algorithm for frequent items (and for quantiles) that provably minimizes the worst case total communication for nonregular trees. In addition, we give a multipath algorithm for frequent items that is considerably more accurate than previous approaches. These algorithms form the basis for our efficient TributaryDelta frequent items algorithm. Through extensive simulation with realworld and synthetic data, we show the significant advantages of our techniques. For example, in computing Count under realistic loss rates, our techniques reduce answer error by up to a factor of 3 compared to any previous technique. 1.
What's New: Finding Significant Differences in Network Data Streams
 in Proc. of IEEE Infocom
, 2004
"... Monitoring and analyzing network traffic usage patterns is vital for managing IP Networks. An important problem is to provide network managers with information about changes in traffic, informing them about "what's new". Specifically, we focus on the challenge of finding significantly large differen ..."
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Cited by 67 (8 self)
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Monitoring and analyzing network traffic usage patterns is vital for managing IP Networks. An important problem is to provide network managers with information about changes in traffic, informing them about "what's new". Specifically, we focus on the challenge of finding significantly large differences in traffic: over time, between interfaces and between routers. We introduce the idea of a deltoid: an item that has a large difference, whether the difference is absolute, relative or variational. We present novel...
Faster CoreSet Constructions and Data Stream Algorithms in Fixed Dimensions
 Comput. Geom. Theory Appl
, 2003
"... We speed up previous (1 + ")factor approximation algorithms for a number of geometric optimization problems in xed dimensions: diameter, width, minimumradius enclosing cylinder, minimumwidth annulus, minimumvolume bounding box, minimumwidth cylindrical shell, etc. ..."
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Cited by 64 (3 self)
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We speed up previous (1 + ")factor approximation algorithms for a number of geometric optimization problems in xed dimensions: diameter, width, minimumradius enclosing cylinder, minimumwidth annulus, minimumvolume bounding box, minimumwidth cylindrical shell, etc.
Computational methods for sparse solution of linear inverse problems
, 2009
"... The goal of sparse approximation problems is to represent a target signal approximately as a linear combination of a few elementary signals drawn from a fixed collection. This paper surveys the major practical algorithms for sparse approximation. Specific attention is paid to computational issues, ..."
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Cited by 60 (0 self)
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The goal of sparse approximation problems is to represent a target signal approximately as a linear combination of a few elementary signals drawn from a fixed collection. This paper surveys the major practical algorithms for sparse approximation. Specific attention is paid to computational issues, to the circumstances in which individual methods tend to perform well, and to the theoretical guarantees available. Many fundamental questions in electrical engineering, statistics, and applied mathematics can be posed as sparse approximation problems, making these algorithms versatile and relevant to a wealth of applications.
Distributed streams algorithms for sliding windows
 In Proc. ACM Symp. on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA
, 2002
"... Massive data sets often arise as physically distributed, parallel data streams, and it is important to estimate various aggregates and statistics on the union of these streams. This paper presents algorithms for estimating aggregate functions over a “sliding window ” of the N most recent data items ..."
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Cited by 57 (11 self)
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Massive data sets often arise as physically distributed, parallel data streams, and it is important to estimate various aggregates and statistics on the union of these streams. This paper presents algorithms for estimating aggregate functions over a “sliding window ” of the N most recent data items in one or more streams. Our results include: 1. For a single stream, we present the first ɛapproximation scheme for the number of 1’s in a sliding window that is optimal in both worst case time and space. We also present the first ɛapproximation scheme for the sum of integers in [0..R] in a sliding window that is optimal in both worst case time and space (assuming R is at most polynomial in N). Both algorithms are deterministic and use only logarithmic memory words. 2. In contrast, we show that any deterministic algorithm that estimates, to within a small constant relative error, the number of 1’s (or the sum of integers) in a sliding window on the union of distributed streams requires Ω(N) space.
Graph distances in the streaming model: the value of space
 In ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2005
"... We investigate the importance of space when solving problems based on graph distance in the streaming model. In this model, the input graph is presented as a stream of edges in an arbitrary order. The main computational restriction of the model is that we have limited space and therefore cannot stor ..."
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Cited by 52 (10 self)
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We investigate the importance of space when solving problems based on graph distance in the streaming model. In this model, the input graph is presented as a stream of edges in an arbitrary order. The main computational restriction of the model is that we have limited space and therefore cannot store all the streamed data; we are forced to make spaceefficient summaries of the data as we go along. For a graph of n vertices and m edges, we show that testing many graph properties, including connectivity (ergo any reasonable decision problem about distances) and bipartiteness, requires Ω(n) bits of space. Given this, we then investigate how the power of the model increases as we relax our space restriction. Our main result is an efficient randomized algorithm that constructs a (2t + 1)spanner in one pass. With high probability, it uses O(t · n 1+1/t log 2 n) bits of space and processes each edge in the stream in O(t 2 · n 1/t log n) time. We find approximations to diameter and girth via the log n constructed spanner. For t = Ω (), the space log log n requirement of the algorithm is O(n·polylog n), and the peredge processing time is O(polylog n). We also show a corresponding lower bound of t for the approximation ratio achievable when the space restriction is O(t · n1+1/t log 2 n). We then consider the scenario in which we are allowed multiple passes over the input stream. Here, we investigate whether allowing these extra passes will compensate for a given space restriction. We show that ∗This work was supported by the DoD University Research Initiative (URI) administered by the Office of Naval Research