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81
Universal coalgebra: a theory of systems
, 2000
"... In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certa ..."
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Cited by 386 (41 self)
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In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certain types of automata and more generally, for (transition and dynamical) systems. An important property of initial algebras is that they satisfy the familiar principle of induction. Such a principle was missing for coalgebras until the work of Aczel (NonWellFounded sets, CSLI Leethre Notes, Vol. 14, center for the study of Languages and information, Stanford, 1988) on a theory of nonwellfounded sets, in which he introduced a proof principle nowadays called coinduction. It was formulated in terms of bisimulation, a notion originally stemming from the world of concurrent programming languages. Using the notion of coalgebra homomorphism, the definition of bisimulation on coalgebras can be shown to be formally dual to that of congruence on algebras. Thus, the three basic notions of universal algebra: algebra, homomorphism of algebras, and congruence, turn out to correspond to coalgebra, homomorphism of coalgebras, and bisimulation, respectively. In this paper, the latter are taken
A Tutorial on (Co)Algebras and (Co)Induction
 EATCS Bulletin
, 1997
"... . Algebraic structures which are generated by a collection of constructors like natural numbers (generated by a zero and a successor) or finite lists and trees are of wellestablished importance in computer science. Formally, they are initial algebras. Induction is used both as a definition pr ..."
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Cited by 266 (37 self)
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. Algebraic structures which are generated by a collection of constructors like natural numbers (generated by a zero and a successor) or finite lists and trees are of wellestablished importance in computer science. Formally, they are initial algebras. Induction is used both as a definition principle, and as a proof principle for such structures. But there are also important dual "coalgebraic" structures, which do not come equipped with constructor operations but with what are sometimes called "destructor" operations (also called observers, accessors, transition maps, or mutators). Spaces of infinite data (including, for example, infinite lists, and nonwellfounded sets) are generally of this kind. In general, dynamical systems with a hidden, blackbox state space, to which a user only has limited access via specified (observer or mutator) operations, are coalgebras of various kinds. Such coalgebraic systems are common in computer science. And "coinduction" is the appropriate te...
Bisimulation for Probabilistic Transition Systems: A Coalgebraic Approach
, 1998
"... . The notion of bisimulation as proposed by Larsen and Skou for discrete probabilistic transition systems is shown to coincide with a coalgebraic definition in the sense of Aczel and Mendler in terms of a set functor. This coalgebraic formulation makes it possible to generalize the concepts to a ..."
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Cited by 97 (15 self)
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. The notion of bisimulation as proposed by Larsen and Skou for discrete probabilistic transition systems is shown to coincide with a coalgebraic definition in the sense of Aczel and Mendler in terms of a set functor. This coalgebraic formulation makes it possible to generalize the concepts to a continuous setting involving Borel probability measures. Under reasonable conditions, generalized probabilistic bisimilarity can be characterized categorically. Application of the final coalgebra paradigm then yields an internally fully abstract semantical domain with respect to probabilistic bisimulation. Keywords. Bisimulation, probabilistic transition system, coalgebra, ultrametric space, Borel measure, final coalgebra. 1 Introduction For discrete probabilistic transition systems the notion of probabilistic bisimilarity of Larsen and Skou [LS91] is regarded as the basic process equivalence. The definition was given for reactive systems. However, Van Glabbeek, Smolka and Steffen s...
Structural Induction and Coinduction in a Fibrational Setting
 Information and Computation
, 1997
"... . We present a categorical logic formulation of induction and coinduction principles for reasoning about inductively and coinductively defined types. Our main results provide sufficient criteria for the validity of such principles: in the presence of comprehension, the induction principle for in ..."
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Cited by 81 (16 self)
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. We present a categorical logic formulation of induction and coinduction principles for reasoning about inductively and coinductively defined types. Our main results provide sufficient criteria for the validity of such principles: in the presence of comprehension, the induction principle for initial algebras is admissible, and dually, in the presence of quotient types, the coinduction principle for terminal coalgebras is admissible. After giving an alternative formulation of induction in terms of binary relations, we combine both principles and obtain a mixed induction/coinduction principle which allows us to reason about minimal solutions X = oe(X) where X may occur both positively and negatively in the type constructor oe. We further strengthen these logical principles to deal with contexts and prove that such strengthening is valid when the (abstract) logic we consider is contextually/functionally complete. All the main results follow from a basic result about adjunc...
A Per Model of Polymorphism and Recursive Types
 In Logic in Computer Science. IEEE
, 1990
"... A model of Reynolds' polymorphic lambda calculus is provided, which also allows the recursive definition of elements and types. The technique is to use a good class of partial equivalence relations over a certain cpo. This allows the combination of inverselimits for recursion and intersection ..."
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Cited by 67 (4 self)
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A model of Reynolds' polymorphic lambda calculus is provided, which also allows the recursive definition of elements and types. The technique is to use a good class of partial equivalence relations over a certain cpo. This allows the combination of inverselimits for recursion and intersection for polymorphism.
Initial Algebra and Final Coalgebra Semantics for Concurrency
, 1994
"... The aim of this paper is to relate initial algebra semantics and final coalgebra semantics. It is shown how these two approaches to the semantics of programming languages are each others dual, and some conditions are given under which they coincide. More precisely, it is shown how to derive initial ..."
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Cited by 56 (9 self)
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The aim of this paper is to relate initial algebra semantics and final coalgebra semantics. It is shown how these two approaches to the semantics of programming languages are each others dual, and some conditions are given under which they coincide. More precisely, it is shown how to derive initial semantics from final semantics, using the initiality and finality to ensure their equality. Moreover, many facts about congruences (on algebras) and (generalized) bisimulations (on coalgebras) are shown to be dual as well.
On the Foundations of Final Semantics: NonStandard Sets, Metric Spaces, Partial Orders
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REX WORKSHOP ON SEMANTICS: FOUNDATIONS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLUME 666 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1998
"... Canonical solutions of domain equations are shown to be final coalgebras, not only in a category of nonstandard sets (as already known), but also in categories of metric spaces and partial orders. Coalgebras are simple categorical structures generalizing the notion of postfixed point. They are ..."
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Cited by 48 (10 self)
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Canonical solutions of domain equations are shown to be final coalgebras, not only in a category of nonstandard sets (as already known), but also in categories of metric spaces and partial orders. Coalgebras are simple categorical structures generalizing the notion of postfixed point. They are also used here for giving a new comprehensive presentation of the (still) nonstandard theory of nonwellfounded sets (as nonstandard sets are usually called). This paper is meant to provide a basis to a more general project aiming at a full exploitation of the finality of the domains in the semantics of programming languages  concurrent ones among them. Such a final semantics enjoys uniformity and generality. For instance, semantic observational equivalences like bisimulation can be derived as instances of a single `coalgebraic' definition (introduced elsewhere), which is parametric of the functor appearing in the domain equation. Some properties of this general form of equivalence are also studied in this paper.
Topology and the Semantics of Logic Programs
 Fundamenta Informaticae
, 1995
"... We introduce topologies on spaces of interpretations which extend and generalise the query and positive query topologies of Batarekh and Subrahmanian. We study continuity in these topologies of the immediate consequence map associated with any normal logic program and provide necessary and sufficien ..."
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Cited by 46 (30 self)
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We introduce topologies on spaces of interpretations which extend and generalise the query and positive query topologies of Batarekh and Subrahmanian. We study continuity in these topologies of the immediate consequence map associated with any normal logic program and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for continuity to hold. We relate these ideas to (i) computational power of programs; (ii) canonical programs; (iii) the declarative semantics of definite programs; (iv) Maher's down continuous programs; (v) the decency thesis of Jaffar, Lassez and Maher, and (vi) compactness of sets of fixed points and models. 1 Introduction The classical approach to the study of fixed point semantics of definite logic programs P utilises two main facts: (1) The set I J L of all interpretations of the underlying language L based on a given preinterpretation J forms a complete lattice under the partial order of set inclusion. (2) The immediate consequence map T P defined on I J L is latti...
Nested Hoare triples and frame rules for higherorder store
 In Proceedings of the 18th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic
, 2009
"... Abstract. Separation logic is a Hoarestyle logic for reasoning about programs with heapallocated mutable data structures. As a step toward extending separation logic to highlevel languages with MLstyle general (higherorder) storage, we investigate the compatibility of nested Hoare triples with ..."
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Cited by 34 (16 self)
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Abstract. Separation logic is a Hoarestyle logic for reasoning about programs with heapallocated mutable data structures. As a step toward extending separation logic to highlevel languages with MLstyle general (higherorder) storage, we investigate the compatibility of nested Hoare triples with several variations of higherorder frame rules. The interaction of nested triples and frame rules can be subtle, and the inclusion of certain frame rules is in fact unsound. A particular combination of rules can be shown consistent by means of a Kripke model where worlds live in a recursively defined ultrametric space. The resulting logic allows us to elegantly prove programs involving stored code. In particular, it leads to natural specifications and proofs of invariants required for dealing with recursion through the store. Keywords. Higherorder store, Hoare logic, separation logic, semantics. 1
Stepindexed Kripke models over recursive worlds
 In Proc. of POPL
, 2011
"... Over the last decade, there has been extensive research on modelling challenging features in programming languages and program logics, such as higherorder store and storable resource invariants. A recent line of work has identified a common solution to some of these challenges: Kripke models over w ..."
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Cited by 31 (13 self)
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Over the last decade, there has been extensive research on modelling challenging features in programming languages and program logics, such as higherorder store and storable resource invariants. A recent line of work has identified a common solution to some of these challenges: Kripke models over worlds that are recursively defined in a category of metric spaces. In this paper, we broaden the scope of this technique from the original domaintheoretic setting to an elementary, operational one based on step indexing. The resulting method is widely applicable and leads to simple, succinct models of complicated language features, as we demonstrate in our semantics of Charguéraud and Pottier’s typeandcapability system for an MLlike higherorder language. Moreover, the method provides a highlevel understanding of the essence of recent approaches based on step indexing. 1.