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HashBased Techniques for HighSpeed Packet Processing
"... Abstract Hashing is an extremely useful technique for a variety of highspeed packetprocessing applications in routers. In this chapter, we survey much of the recent work in this area, paying particular attention to the interaction between theoretical and applied research. We assume very little bac ..."
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Abstract Hashing is an extremely useful technique for a variety of highspeed packetprocessing applications in routers. In this chapter, we survey much of the recent work in this area, paying particular attention to the interaction between theoretical and applied research. We assume very little background in either the theory or applications of hashing, reviewing the fundamentals as necessary. 1
False Negative Problem of Counting Bloom Filter
"... Abstract—Bloom filter is effective, spaceefficient data structure for concisely representing a data set and supporting approximate membership queries. Traditionally, researchers often believe that it is possible that a Bloom filter returns a false positive, but it will never return a false negative ..."
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Abstract—Bloom filter is effective, spaceefficient data structure for concisely representing a data set and supporting approximate membership queries. Traditionally, researchers often believe that it is possible that a Bloom filter returns a false positive, but it will never return a false negative under wellbehaved operations. By investigating the mainstream variants, however, we observe that a Bloom filter does return false negatives in many scenarios. In this work, we show that the undetectable incorrect deletion of false positive items and detectable incorrect deletion of multiaddress items are two general causes of false negative in a Bloom filter. We then measure the potential and exposed false negatives theoretically and practically. Inspired by the fact that the potential false negatives are usually not fully exposed, we propose a novel Bloom filter scheme, which increases the ratio of bits set to a value larger than one without decreasing the ratio of bits set to zero. Mathematical analysis and comprehensive experiments show that this design can reduce the number of exposed false negatives as well as decrease the likelihood of false positives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work dealing with both the false positive and false negative problems of Bloom filter systematically when supporting standard usages of item insertion, query, and deletion operations. Index Terms—Bloom filter, false negative, multichoice counting Bloom filter. Ç 1
A Power Management Proxy with a New BestofN Bloom Filter Design to Reduce False Positives
 In IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference
, 2007
"... Bloom filters are a probabilistic data structure used to evaluate set membership. A group of hash functions are used to map elements into a Bloom filter and to test elements for membership. In this paper, we propose using multiple groups of hash functions and selecting the group that generates the B ..."
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Bloom filters are a probabilistic data structure used to evaluate set membership. A group of hash functions are used to map elements into a Bloom filter and to test elements for membership. In this paper, we propose using multiple groups of hash functions and selecting the group that generates the Bloom filter instance with the smallest number of bits set to 1. We evaluate the performance of this new BestofN method using order statistics and an actual implementation. Our analysis shows that significant reduction in the probability of a false positive can be achieved. We also propose and evaluate a new method that uses a Random Number Generator (RNG) to generate multiple hashes from one initial “seed ” hash. This RNG method (motivated by a method from Kirsch and Mitzenmacher) makes the computational expense of the BestofN method very modest. The target application is a power management proxy for P2P applications executing in a resourceconstrained “SmartNIC”.
Practical and secure multidimensional query framework in tiered sensor networks
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensic and Security
, 2011
"... Abstract—The twotier architecture consisting of a small number of resourceabundant storage nodes in the upper tier and a large number of sensors in the lower tier could be promising for largescale sensor networks in terms of resource efficiency, network capacity, network management complexity, et ..."
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Abstract—The twotier architecture consisting of a small number of resourceabundant storage nodes in the upper tier and a large number of sensors in the lower tier could be promising for largescale sensor networks in terms of resource efficiency, network capacity, network management complexity, etc. In this architecture, each sensor having multiple sensing capabilities periodically forwards the multidimensional sensed data to the storage node, which responds to the queries, such as range query, top query, and skyline query. Unfortunately, node compromises pose the great challenge of securing the data collection; the sensed data could be leaked to or could be manipulated by the compromised nodes. Furthermore, chunks of the sensed data could be dropped maliciously, resulting in an incomplete query result, which is the most difficult security breach. Here, we propose a simple yet effective hash treebased framework, under which data confidentiality, query result authenticity, and query result completeness can be guaranteed simultaneously. In addition, the subtree sampling technique, which could be of independent interest to the other applications, is proposed to efficiently identify the compromised nodes. Last, analytical and extensive simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performance and security of our methods. Prototype implementation on TelosB mote demonstrates the practicality of our proposed methods. Index Terms—Multidimensional query, secure query, sensor network.
Inpacket Bloom filters: Design and networking applications
, 908
"... The Bloom filter (BF) is a wellknown spaceefficient data structure that answers set membership queries with some probability of false positives. In an attempt to solve many of the limitations of current internetworking architectures, some recent proposals rely on including small BFs in packet hea ..."
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The Bloom filter (BF) is a wellknown spaceefficient data structure that answers set membership queries with some probability of false positives. In an attempt to solve many of the limitations of current internetworking architectures, some recent proposals rely on including small BFs in packet headers for routing, security, accountability or other purposes that move application states into the packets themselves. In this paper, we consider the design of such inpacket Bloom filters (iBF). Our main contributions are exploring the design space and the evaluation of a series of extensions (1) to increase the practicality and performance of iBFs, (2) to enable falsenegativefree element deletion, and (3) to provide security enhancements. In addition to the theoretical estimates, extensive simulations of the multiple design parameters and implementation alternatives validate the usefulness of the extensions, providing for enhanced and novel iBF networking applications.
1 Chapter 15 Effective Multiuser Broadcast Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks
"... Abstract—Broadcast authentication is a critical security service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), as it allows the mobile users of WSNs to broadcast messages to multiple sensor nodes in a secure way. Previous solutions on broadcast authentication are mostly symmetrickeybased solutions such as µ ..."
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Abstract—Broadcast authentication is a critical security service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), as it allows the mobile users of WSNs to broadcast messages to multiple sensor nodes in a secure way. Previous solutions on broadcast authentication are mostly symmetrickeybased solutions such as µTESLA and multilevel µTESLA. These schemes are usually efficient; however, they all suffer from severe energydepletion attacks resulted from the nature of delayed message authentication. Being aware of the security vulnerability inherent to existing solutions, we present several efficient publickeybased schemes in this chapter to achieve immediate broadcast authentication with significantly improved security strength. Our schemes are built upon the unique integration of several cryptographic techniques, including the Bloom filter, the partial message recovery signature scheme and the Merkle hash tree. We prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed schemes by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of their energy consumption regarding both computation and communication.
8th IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Networks and Systems for Pervasive Computing 2012, Lugano (19 March 2012) CSI: Compressed SensingBased Clone Identification in Sensor Networks
"... Abstract—The clone detection, aiming to detect the illegal copies with all of the credentials of legitimate sensor nodes, is of great importance for sensor networks because of the substantial impact of clones on network operations like routing, data collection, and key distribution, etc. Based on a ..."
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Abstract—The clone detection, aiming to detect the illegal copies with all of the credentials of legitimate sensor nodes, is of great importance for sensor networks because of the substantial impact of clones on network operations like routing, data collection, and key distribution, etc. Based on a stateoftheart signal processing technique, compressed sensing, we propose a novel clone detection method, called CSI. Not only is the design philosophy fundamentally different from the existing methods, but also it has the lowest communication cost among all detection methods. The performance and security of CSI will be demonstrated by numerical simulations and analyses. KeywordsClone; Node replication attack; Sensor networks; Network security
+Universite de Savoie
"... Abstract—Bloom filters are spaceefficient data structures for fast set membership queries. Counting Bloom Filters (CBFs) extend Bloom filters by allowing insertions and deletions to support dynamic sets. The performance of CBFs is critical for various applications and systems. This paper presents a ..."
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Abstract—Bloom filters are spaceefficient data structures for fast set membership queries. Counting Bloom Filters (CBFs) extend Bloom filters by allowing insertions and deletions to support dynamic sets. The performance of CBFs is critical for various applications and systems. This paper presents a novel approach to building a fast and accurate data structure called MultiplePartitioned Counting Bloom Filter (MPCBF) that addresses largescale data processing challenges. MPCBF is based on two ideas: reducing the number of memory accesses from k (for k hash functions) in the standard CBF to only one memory access in the basic MPCBF1 case, and a hierarchical structure to improve the false positive rate. We also generalize MPCBF1 to MPCBFg to accommodate up to g memory accesses. Our simulation and implementation in MapReduce show that MPCBF outperforms the standard CBF in terms of speed and accuracy. Compared to CBF, at the same memory consumption, MPCBF significantly reduces the false positive rate by an order of magnitude, with a reduction of processing overhead by up to 85.9%. Keywords Bloom filter; hashing; hierarchical structure; packet processing; mapreduce I.
1Theory and Practice of Bloom Filters for Distributed Systems
"... Abstract — Many network solutions and overlay networks utilize probabilistic techniques to reduce information processing and networking costs. This survey article presents a number of frequently used and useful probabilistic techniques. Bloom filters and their variants are of prime importance, and ..."
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Abstract — Many network solutions and overlay networks utilize probabilistic techniques to reduce information processing and networking costs. This survey article presents a number of frequently used and useful probabilistic techniques. Bloom filters and their variants are of prime importance, and they are heavily used in various distributed systems. This has been reflected in recent research and many new algorithms have been proposed for distributed systems that are either directly or indirectly based on Bloom filters. In this survey, we give an overview of the basic and advanced techniques, reviewing over 20 variants and discussing their application in distributed systems, in particular for caching, peertopeer systems, routing and forwarding, and measurement data summarization. Index Terms — Bloom filters, probabilistic structures, distributed systems
Bloom Filter Query Algorithm
"... Abstract: This paper surveys the mathematics behind Bloom filters, some important variations and networkrelated applications of Bloom filters. The current researches show that although Bloom filters start drawing significant attention from the academic community and there has been considerable pro ..."
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Abstract: This paper surveys the mathematics behind Bloom filters, some important variations and networkrelated applications of Bloom filters. The current researches show that although Bloom filters start drawing significant attention from the academic community and there has been considerable progress, there are still many