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26
A Hierarchy of Probabilistic System Types
, 2003
"... We study various notions of probabilistic bisimulation from a coalgebraic point of view, accumulating in a hierarchy of probabilistic system types. In general, a natural transformation between two Setfunctors straightforwardly gives rise to a transformation of coalgebras for the respective functors ..."
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Cited by 41 (7 self)
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We study various notions of probabilistic bisimulation from a coalgebraic point of view, accumulating in a hierarchy of probabilistic system types. In general, a natural transformation between two Setfunctors straightforwardly gives rise to a transformation of coalgebras for the respective functors. This latter transformation preserves homomorphisms and thus bisimulations. For comparison of probabilistic system types we also need reflection of bisimulation. We build the hierarchy of probabilistic systems by exploiting the new result that the transformation also reflects bisimulation in case the natural transformation is componentwise injective and the first functor preserves weak pullbacks. Additionally, we illustrate the correspondence of concrete and coalgebraic bisimulation in the case of general Segalatype systems.
Compositional reasoning for probabilistic finitestate behaviors
 In Processes, Terms and Cycles: Steps on the Road to Infinity, Essays Dedicated to Jan Willem Klop, on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, LNCS 3838
, 2005
"... Abstract. We study a process algebra which combines both nondeterministic and probabilistic behavior in the style of Segala and Lynch’s simple probabilistic automata. We consider strong bisimulation and observational equivalence, and provide complete axiomatizations for a language that includes para ..."
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Cited by 17 (4 self)
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Abstract. We study a process algebra which combines both nondeterministic and probabilistic behavior in the style of Segala and Lynch’s simple probabilistic automata. We consider strong bisimulation and observational equivalence, and provide complete axiomatizations for a language that includes parallel composition and (guarded) recursion. The presence of the parallel composition introduces various technical difficulties and some restrictions are necessary in order to achieve complete axiomatizations. 1
Making random choices invisible to the scheduler
 In Proc. of CONCUR’07). To appear
, 2007
"... Abstract. When dealing with process calculi and automata which express both nondeterministic and probabilistic behavior, it is customary to introduce the notion of scheduler to resolve the nondeterminism. It has been observed that for certain applications, notably those in security, the scheduler ne ..."
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Cited by 15 (7 self)
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Abstract. When dealing with process calculi and automata which express both nondeterministic and probabilistic behavior, it is customary to introduce the notion of scheduler to resolve the nondeterminism. It has been observed that for certain applications, notably those in security, the scheduler needs to be restricted so not to reveal the outcome of the protocol’s random choices, or otherwise the model of adversary would be too strong even for “obviously correct ” protocols. We propose a processalgebraic framework in which the control on the scheduler can be specified in syntactic terms, and we show how to apply it to solve the problem mentioned above. We also consider the definition of (probabilistic) may and must preorders, and we show that they are precongruences with respect to the restricted schedulers. Furthermore, we show that all the operators of the language, except replication, distribute over probabilistic summation, which is a useful property for verification. 1
Significant diagnostic counterexamples in probabilistic model checking
 Proc. of HVC’08, volume 5394 of LNCS
, 2009
"... Abstract. This paper presents a novel technique for counterexample generation in probabilistic model checking of Markov Chains and Markov Decision Processes. (Finite) paths in counterexamples are grouped together in witnesses that are likely to provide similar debugging information to the user. We l ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a novel technique for counterexample generation in probabilistic model checking of Markov Chains and Markov Decision Processes. (Finite) paths in counterexamples are grouped together in witnesses that are likely to provide similar debugging information to the user. We list five properties that witnesses should satisfy in order to be useful as debugging aid: similarity, accuracy, originality, significance, and finiteness. Our witnesses contain paths that behave similar outside strongly connected components. This papers shows how to compute these witnesses by reducing the problem of generating counterexamples for general properties over Markov Decision Processes, in several steps, to the easy problem of generating counterexamples for reachability properties over acyclic Markov Chains. 1
MoDeST: A compositional modeling formalism for hard and softly timed systems
, 2005
"... This paper presents Modest (MOdeling and DEscription language for Stochastic Timed systems), a formalism that is aimed to support (i) the modular description of reactive system’s behaviour while covering both (ii) functional and (iii) nonfunctional system aspects such as timing and qualityofservi ..."
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Cited by 14 (7 self)
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This paper presents Modest (MOdeling and DEscription language for Stochastic Timed systems), a formalism that is aimed to support (i) the modular description of reactive system’s behaviour while covering both (ii) functional and (iii) nonfunctional system aspects such as timing and qualityofservice constraints in a single specification. The language contains features such as simple and structured data types, structuring mechanisms like parallel composition and abstraction, means to control the granularity of assignments, exception handling, and nondeterministic and random branching and timing. Modest can be viewed as an overarching notation for a wide spectrum of models, ranging from labeled transition systems, to timed automata (and probabilistic variants thereof) as well as prominent stochastic processes such as (generalized semi)Markov chains and decision processes. The paper describes the design rationales and details of the syntax and semantics. Key words: modeling formalism, compositionality, formal semantics, timed automata, stochastic processes
Automated Verification Techniques for Probabilistic Systems
"... Abstract. This tutorial provides an introduction to probabilistic model checking, a technique for automatically verifying quantitative properties of probabilistic systems. We focus on Markov decision processes (MDPs), which model both stochastic and nondeterministic behaviour. We describe methods to ..."
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Cited by 13 (8 self)
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Abstract. This tutorial provides an introduction to probabilistic model checking, a technique for automatically verifying quantitative properties of probabilistic systems. We focus on Markov decision processes (MDPs), which model both stochastic and nondeterministic behaviour. We describe methods to analyse a wide range of their properties, including specifications in the temporal logics PCTL and LTL, probabilistic safety properties and cost or rewardbased measures. We also discuss multiobjective probabilistic model checking, used to analyse tradeoffs between several different quantitative properties. Applications of the techniques in this tutorial include performance and dependability analysis of networked systems, communication protocols and randomised distributed algorithms. Since such systems often comprise several components operating in parallel, we also cover techniques for compositional modelling and verification of multicomponent probabilistic systems. Finally, we describe three large case studies which illustrate practical applications of the various methods discussed in the tutorial. 1
SOS formats and metatheory: 20 years after
, 2007
"... In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, Technical ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, Technical
Quantitative model checking revisited: neither decidable nor approximable
 In FORMATS’07, LNCS 4763
, 2007
"... Abstract. Quantitative model checking computes the probability values of a given property quantifying over all possible schedulers. It turns out that maximum and minimum probabilities calculated in such a way are overestimations on models of distributed systems in which components are loosely coup ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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Abstract. Quantitative model checking computes the probability values of a given property quantifying over all possible schedulers. It turns out that maximum and minimum probabilities calculated in such a way are overestimations on models of distributed systems in which components are loosely coupled and share little information with each other (and hence arbitrary schedulers may result too powerful). Therefore, we focus on the quantitative model checking problem restricted to distributed schedulers that are obtained only as a combination of local schedulers (i.e. the schedulers of each component) and show that this problem is undecidable. In fact, we show that there is no algorithm that can compute an approximation to the maximum probability of reaching a state within a given bound when restricted to distributed schedulers. 1
Switched probabilistic I/O automata
 IN PROCEEDINGS FIRST INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM ON THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTING (ICTAC2004
, 2004
"... A switched probabilistic I/O automaton is a special kind of probabilistic I/O automaton (PIOA), enriched with an explicit mechanism to exchange control with its environment. Every closed system of switched automata satisfies the key property that, in any reachable state, at most one component auto ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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A switched probabilistic I/O automaton is a special kind of probabilistic I/O automaton (PIOA), enriched with an explicit mechanism to exchange control with its environment. Every closed system of switched automata satisfies the key property that, in any reachable state, at most one component automaton is active. We define a tracebased semantics for switched PIOAs and prove it is compositional. We also propose switch extensions of an arbitrary PIOA and use these extensions to define a new tracebased semantics for PIOAs.