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186
Compressive sensing
 IEEE Signal Processing Mag
, 2007
"... The Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem tells us that in order to not lose information when uniformly sampling a signal we must sample at least two times faster than its bandwidth. In many applications, including digital image and video cameras, the Nyquist rate can be so high that we end up with too m ..."
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Cited by 299 (40 self)
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The Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem tells us that in order to not lose information when uniformly sampling a signal we must sample at least two times faster than its bandwidth. In many applications, including digital image and video cameras, the Nyquist rate can be so high that we end up with too many samples and must compress in order to store or transmit them. In other applications, including imaging systems (medical scanners, radars) and highspeed analogtodigital converters, increasing the sampling rate or density beyond the current stateoftheart is very expensive. In this lecture, we will learn about a new technique that tackles these issues using compressive sensing [1, 2]. We will replace the conventional sampling and reconstruction operations with a more general linear measurement scheme coupled with an optimization in order to acquire certain kinds of signals at a rate significantly below Nyquist. 2
Just Relax: Convex Programming Methods for Identifying Sparse Signals in Noise
, 2006
"... This paper studies a difficult and fundamental problem that arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and statistics. Suppose that one forms a short linear combination of elementary signals drawn from a large, fixed collection. Given an observation of the linear combination that ..."
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Cited by 293 (1 self)
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This paper studies a difficult and fundamental problem that arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and statistics. Suppose that one forms a short linear combination of elementary signals drawn from a large, fixed collection. Given an observation of the linear combination that has been contaminated with additive noise, the goal is to identify which elementary signals participated and to approximate their coefficients. Although many algorithms have been proposed, there is little theory which guarantees that these algorithms can accurately and efficiently solve the problem. This paper studies a method called convex relaxation, which attempts to recover the ideal sparse signal by solving a convex program. This approach is powerful because the optimization can be completed in polynomial time with standard scientific software. The paper provides general conditions which ensure that convex relaxation succeeds. As evidence of the broad impact of these results, the paper describes how convex relaxation can be used for several concrete signal recovery problems. It also describes applications to channel coding, linear regression, and numerical analysis.
Bayesian Compressive Sensing
, 2007
"... The data of interest are assumed to be represented as Ndimensional real vectors, and these vectors are compressible in some linear basis B, implying that the signal can be reconstructed accurately using only a small number M ≪ N of basisfunction coefficients associated with B. Compressive sensing ..."
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Cited by 132 (15 self)
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The data of interest are assumed to be represented as Ndimensional real vectors, and these vectors are compressible in some linear basis B, implying that the signal can be reconstructed accurately using only a small number M ≪ N of basisfunction coefficients associated with B. Compressive sensing is a framework whereby one does not measure one of the aforementioned Ndimensional signals directly, but rather a set of related measurements, with the new measurements a linear combination of the original underlying Ndimensional signal. The number of required compressivesensing measurements is typically much smaller than N, offering the potential to simplify the sensing system. Let f denote the unknown underlying Ndimensional signal, and g a vector of compressivesensing measurements, then one may approximate f accurately by utilizing knowledge of the (underdetermined) linear relationship between f and g, in addition to knowledge of the fact that f is compressible in B. In this paper we employ a Bayesian formalism for estimating the underlying signal f based on compressivesensing measurements g. The proposed framework has the following properties: (i) in addition to estimating the underlying signal f, “error bars ” are also estimated, these giving a measure of confidence in the inverted signal; (ii) using knowledge of the error bars, a principled means is provided for determining when a sufficient
Robust Recovery of Signals From a Structured Union of Subspaces
, 2008
"... Traditional sampling theories consider the problem of reconstructing an unknown signal x from a series of samples. A prevalent assumption which often guarantees recovery from the given measurements is that x lies in a known subspace. Recently, there has been growing interest in nonlinear but structu ..."
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Cited by 105 (36 self)
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Traditional sampling theories consider the problem of reconstructing an unknown signal x from a series of samples. A prevalent assumption which often guarantees recovery from the given measurements is that x lies in a known subspace. Recently, there has been growing interest in nonlinear but structured signal models, in which x lies in a union of subspaces. In this paper we develop a general framework for robust and efficient recovery of such signals from a given set of samples. More specifically, we treat the case in which x lies in a sum of k subspaces, chosen from a larger set of m possibilities. The samples are modelled as inner products with an arbitrary set of sampling functions. To derive an efficient and robust recovery algorithm, we show that our problem can be formulated as that of recovering a blocksparse vector whose nonzero elements appear in fixed blocks. We then propose a mixed ℓ2/ℓ1 program for block sparse recovery. Our main result is an equivalence condition under which the proposed convex algorithm is guaranteed to recover the original signal. This result relies on the notion of block restricted isometry property (RIP), which is a generalization of the standard RIP used extensively in the context of compressed sensing. Based on RIP we also prove stability of our approach in the presence of noise and modeling errors. A special case of our framework is that of recovering multiple measurement vectors (MMV) that share a joint sparsity pattern. Adapting our results to this context leads to new MMV recovery methods as well as equivalence conditions under which the entire set can be determined efficiently.
Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding
"... Sparse coding—that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements—is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on the largescale matrix factorization problem that consists of learning the basis set, adapting it t ..."
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Cited by 97 (19 self)
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Sparse coding—that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements—is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on the largescale matrix factorization problem that consists of learning the basis set, adapting it to specific data. Variations of this problem include dictionary learning in signal processing, nonnegative matrix factorization and sparse principal component analysis. In this paper, we propose to address these tasks with a new online optimization algorithm, based on stochastic approximations, which scales up gracefully to large datasets with millions of training samples, and extends naturally to various matrix factorization formulations, making it suitable for a wide range of learning problems. A proof of convergence is presented, along with experiments with natural images and genomic data demonstrating that it leads to stateoftheart performance in terms of speed and optimization for both small and large datasets.
Distributed compressed sensing
, 2005
"... Compressed sensing is an emerging field based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for reconstruction. In this paper we introduce a new theory for distributed compressed sensing (DCS) that enables new distributed coding algori ..."
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Cited by 84 (21 self)
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Compressed sensing is an emerging field based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for reconstruction. In this paper we introduce a new theory for distributed compressed sensing (DCS) that enables new distributed coding algorithms for multisignal ensembles that exploit both intra and intersignal correlation structures. The DCS theory rests on a new concept that we term the joint sparsity of a signal ensemble. We study in detail three simple models for jointly sparse signals, propose algorithms for joint recovery of multiple signals from incoherent projections, and characterize theoretically and empirically the number of measurements per sensor required for accurate reconstruction. We establish a parallel with the SlepianWolf theorem from information theory and establish upper and lower bounds on the measurement rates required for encoding jointly sparse signals. In two of our three models, the results are asymptotically bestpossible, meaning that both the upper and lower bounds match the performance of our practical algorithms. Moreover, simulations indicate that the asymptotics take effect with just a moderate number of signals. In some sense DCS is a framework for distributed compression of sources with memory, which has remained a challenging problem for some time. DCS is immediately applicable to a range of problems in sensor networks and arrays.
Recovery algorithms for vector valued data with joint sparsity constraints
, 2006
"... Vector valued data appearing in concrete applications often possess sparse expansions with respect to a preassigned frame for each vector component individually. Additionally, different components may also exhibit common sparsity patterns. Recently, there were introduced sparsity measures that take ..."
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Cited by 70 (21 self)
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Vector valued data appearing in concrete applications often possess sparse expansions with respect to a preassigned frame for each vector component individually. Additionally, different components may also exhibit common sparsity patterns. Recently, there were introduced sparsity measures that take into account such joint sparsity patterns, promoting coupling of nonvanishing components. These measures are typically constructed as weighted ℓ1 norms of componentwise ℓq norms of frame coefficients. We show how to compute solutions of linear inverse problems with such joint sparsity regularization constraints by fast thresholded Landweber algorithms. Next we discuss the adaptive choice of suitable weights appearing in the definition of sparsity measures. The weights are interpreted as indicators of the sparsity pattern and are iteratively updated after each new application of the thresholded Landweber algorithm. The resulting twostep algorithm is interpreted as a doubleminimization scheme for a suitable target functional. We show its ℓ2norm convergence. An implementable version of the algorithm is also formulated, and its norm convergence is proven. Numerical experiments in color image restoration are presented.
A unified framework for highdimensional analysis of Mestimators with decomposable regularizers
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Theoretical results on sparse representations of multiplemeasurement vectors
 IEEE Trans. Signal Process
, 2006
"... Abstract — Multiple measurement vector (MMV) is a relatively new problem in sparse representations. Efficient methods have been proposed. Considering many theoretical results that are available in a simple case – single measure vector (SMV) – the theoretical analysis regarding MMV is lacking. In th ..."
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Cited by 67 (2 self)
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Abstract — Multiple measurement vector (MMV) is a relatively new problem in sparse representations. Efficient methods have been proposed. Considering many theoretical results that are available in a simple case – single measure vector (SMV) – the theoretical analysis regarding MMV is lacking. In this paper, some known results of SMV are generalized to MMV. Some of these new results take advantages of additional information in the formulation of MMV. We consider the uniqueness under both an ℓ0norm like criterion and an ℓ1norm like criterion. The consequent equivalence between the ℓ0norm approach and the ℓ1norm approach indicates a computationally efficient way of finding the sparsest representation in an overcomplete dictionary. For greedy algorithms, it is proven that under certain conditions, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) can find the sparsest representation of an MMV with computational efficiency, just like in SMV. Simulations show that the predictions made by the proved theorems tend to be very conservative; this is consistent with some recent theoretical advances in probability. The connections will be discussed.
From theory to practice: SubNyquist sampling of sparse wideband analog signals
 IEEE J. SEL. TOPICS SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2010
"... Conventional subNyquist sampling methods for analog signals exploit prior information about the spectral support. In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of blind subNyquist sampling of multiband signals, whose unknown frequency support occupies only a small portion of a wide spectrum. ..."
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Cited by 64 (38 self)
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Conventional subNyquist sampling methods for analog signals exploit prior information about the spectral support. In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of blind subNyquist sampling of multiband signals, whose unknown frequency support occupies only a small portion of a wide spectrum. Our primary design goals are efficient hardware implementation and low computational load on the supporting digital processing. We propose a system, named the modulated wideband converter, which first multiplies the analog signal by a bank of periodic waveforms. The product is then lowpass filtered and sampled uniformly at a low rate, which is orders of magnitude smaller than Nyquist. Perfect recovery from the proposed samples is achieved under certain necessary and sufficient conditions. We also develop a digital architecture, which allows either reconstruction of the analog input, or processing of any band of interest at a low rate, that is, without interpolating to the high Nyquist rate. Numerical simulations demonstrate many engineering aspects: robustness to noise and mismodeling, potential hardware simplifications, realtime performance for signals with timevarying support and stability to quantization effects. We compare our system with two previous approaches: periodic nonuniform sampling, which is bandwidth limited by existing hardware devices, and the random demodulator, which is restricted to discrete multitone signals and has a high computational load. In the broader context of Nyquist sampling, our scheme has the potential to break through the bandwidth barrier of stateoftheart analog conversion technologies such as interleaved converters.