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471
Practical animation of liquids
 Graphical Models and Image Processing
, 1996
"... We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our approach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the NavierStokes equations which couple momentum and mass con ..."
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Cited by 373 (24 self)
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We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our approach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the NavierStokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and submerged or semisubmerged obstacles. Velocity and pressure are defined everywhere within this environment, and updated using a set of finite difference expressions. The resulting vector and scalar fields are used to drive a height field equation representing the liquid surface. The nature of the coupling between obstacles in the environment and free variables allows for the simulation of a wide range of effects that were not possible with previous computergraphics fluid models. Wave effects such as reflection, refraction and diffraction, as well as rotational effects such as eddies, vorticity, and splashing are a natural consequence of solving the system. In addition, the Lagrange equations of motion are used to place buoyant dynamic objects into a scene, and track the position of spray and foam during the animation process. Typical disadvantages to dynamic simulations such as poor scalability and lack of control are addressed by assuming that stationary obstacles align with grid cells during the finite difference discretization, and by appending terms to the NavierStokes equations to include forcing functions. Free surfaces in our system are represented as either a collection of massless particles in 2D, or a height field which is suitable for many of the water rendering algorithms presented by researchers in recent years.
Visual Simulation of Smoke
, 2001
"... In this paper, we propose a new approach to numerical smoke simulation for computer graphics applications. The method proposed here exploits physics unique to smoke in order to design a numerical method that is both fast and efficient on the relatively coarse grids traditionally used in computer gra ..."
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Cited by 281 (20 self)
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In this paper, we propose a new approach to numerical smoke simulation for computer graphics applications. The method proposed here exploits physics unique to smoke in order to design a numerical method that is both fast and efficient on the relatively coarse grids traditionally used in computer graphics applications (as compared to the much finer grids used in the computational fluid dynamics literature). We use the inviscid Euler equations in our model, since they are usually more appropriate for gas modeling and less computationally intensive than the viscous NavierStokes equations used by others. In addition, we introduce a physically consistent vorticity confinement term to model the small scale rolling features characteristic of smoke that are absent on most coarse grid simulations. Our model also correctly handles the interaction of smoke with moving objects. Keywords: Smoke, computational fluid dynamics, NavierStokes equations, Euler equations, SemiLagrangian methods, stable fluids, vorticity confinement, participating media 1
Linear Algebra Operators for GPU Implementation of Numerical Algorithms
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2003
"... In this work, the emphasis is on the development of strategies to realize techniques of numerical computing on the graphics chip. In particular, the focus is on the acceleration of techniques for solving sets of algebraic equations as they occur in numerical simulation. We introduce a framework for ..."
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Cited by 272 (9 self)
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In this work, the emphasis is on the development of strategies to realize techniques of numerical computing on the graphics chip. In particular, the focus is on the acceleration of techniques for solving sets of algebraic equations as they occur in numerical simulation. We introduce a framework for the implementation of linear algebra operators on programmable graphics processors (GPUs), thus providing the building blocks for the design of more complex numerical algorithms. In particular, we propose a stream model for arithmetic operations on vectors and matrices that exploits the intrinsic parallelism and efficient communication on modern GPUs. Besides performance gains due to improved numerical computations, graphics algorithms benefit from this model in that the transfer of computation results to the graphics processor for display is avoided. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by implementing direct solvers for sparse matrices, and by applying these solvers to multidimensional finite difference equations, i.e. the 2D wave equation and the incompressible NavierStokes equations.
Sparse matrix solvers on the GPU: conjugate gradients and multigrid
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2003
"... Permission to make digital/hard copy of part of all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage, the copyright notice, the title of the publication, and its date appear, and notice is given ..."
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Cited by 243 (3 self)
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Permission to make digital/hard copy of part of all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage, the copyright notice, the title of the publication, and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission
Animation and Rendering of Complex Water Surfaces
, 2002
"... We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a ..."
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Cited by 230 (21 self)
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We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a computer animation environment. In order to better obtain photorealism in the behavior of the simulated water surface, we introduce a new "thickened" front tracking technique to accurately represent the water surface and a new velocity extrapolation method to move the surface in a smooth, waterlike manner. The velocity extrapolation method allows us to provide a degree of control to the surface motion, e.g. to generate a windblown look or to force the water to settle quickly. To ensure that the photorealism of the simulation carries over to the final images, we have integrated our method with an advanced physically based rendering system.
ParticleBased Fluid Simulation for Interactive Applications
, 2003
"... Realistically animated fluids can add substantial realism to interactive applications such as virtual surgery simulators or computer games. In this paper we propose an interactive method based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate fluids with free surfaces. The method is an extension ..."
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Cited by 202 (11 self)
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Realistically animated fluids can add substantial realism to interactive applications such as virtual surgery simulators or computer games. In this paper we propose an interactive method based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate fluids with free surfaces. The method is an extension of the SPHbased technique by Desbrun to animate highly deformable bodies. We gear the method towards fluid simulation by deriving the force density fields directly from the NavierStokes equation and by adding a term to model surface tension effects. In contrast to Eulerian gridbased approaches, the particlebased approach makes mass conservation equations and convection terms dispensable which reduces the complexity of the simulation. In addition, the particles can directly be used to render the surface of the fluid. We propose methods to track and visualize the free surface using point splatting and marching cubesbased surface reconstruction. Our animation method is fast enough to be used in interactive systems and to allow for user interaction with models consisting of up to 5000 particles.
Simulating Water and Smoke with an Octree Data Structure
, 2004
"... We present a method for simulating water and smoke on an unrestricted octree data structure exploiting mesh refinement techniques to capture the small scale visual detail. We propose a new technique for discretizing the Poisson equation on this octree grid. The resulting linear system is symmetric ..."
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Cited by 169 (16 self)
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We present a method for simulating water and smoke on an unrestricted octree data structure exploiting mesh refinement techniques to capture the small scale visual detail. We propose a new technique for discretizing the Poisson equation on this octree grid. The resulting linear system is symmetric positive definite enabling the use of fast solution methods such as preconditioned conjugate gradients, whereas the standard approximation to the Poisson equation on an octree grid results in a nonsymmetric linear system which is more computationally challenging to invert. The semiLagrangian characteristic tracing technique is used to advect the velocity, smoke density, and even the level set making implementation on an octree straightforward. In the case of smoke, we have multiple refinement criteria including object boundaries, optical depth, and vorticity concentration. In the case of water, we refine near the interface as determined by the zero isocontour of the level set function.
Mesh Editing with PoissonBased Gradient Field Manipulation
 ACM TRANS. GRAPH
, 2004
"... In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to mesh editing with the Poisson equation as the theoretical foundation. The most distinctive feature of this approach is that it modifies the original mesh geometry implicitly through gradient field manipulation. Our approach can produce desirable and pl ..."
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Cited by 147 (14 self)
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In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to mesh editing with the Poisson equation as the theoretical foundation. The most distinctive feature of this approach is that it modifies the original mesh geometry implicitly through gradient field manipulation. Our approach can produce desirable and pleasing results for both global and local editing operations, such as deformation, object merging, and smoothing. With the help from a few novel interactive tools, these operations can be performed conveniently with a small amount of user interaction. Our technique has three key components, a basic mesh solver based on the Poisson equation, a gradient field manipulation scheme using local transforms, and a generalized boundary condition representation based on local frames. Experimental results indicate that our framework can outperform previous related mesh editing techniques.
Physically Based Modeling and Animation of Fire
, 2002
"... We present a physically based method for modeling and animating fire. Our method is suitable for both smooth (laminar) and turbulent flames, and it can be used to animate the burning of either solid or gas fuels. We use the incompressible NavierStokes equations to independently model both vaporized ..."
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Cited by 110 (12 self)
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We present a physically based method for modeling and animating fire. Our method is suitable for both smooth (laminar) and turbulent flames, and it can be used to animate the burning of either solid or gas fuels. We use the incompressible NavierStokes equations to independently model both vaporized fuel and hot gaseous products. We develop a physically based model for the expansion that takes place when a vaporized fuel reacts to form hot gaseous products, and a related model for the similar expansion that takes place when a solid fuel is vaporized into a gaseous state. The hot gaseous products, smoke and soot rise under the influence of buoyancy and are rendered using a blackbody radiation model. We also model and render the blue core that results from radicals in the chemical reaction zone where fuel is converted into products. Our method allows the fire and smoke to interact with objects, and flammable objects can catch on fire.
Rigid fluid: Animating the interplay between rigid bodies and fluid
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2004
"... Figure 1: A silver block catapulting some wooden blocks into an oncoming wall of water. We present the Rigid Fluid method, a technique for animating the interplay between rigid bodies and viscous incompressible fluid with free surfaces. We use distributed Lagrange multipliers to ensure twoway coupl ..."
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Cited by 103 (8 self)
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Figure 1: A silver block catapulting some wooden blocks into an oncoming wall of water. We present the Rigid Fluid method, a technique for animating the interplay between rigid bodies and viscous incompressible fluid with free surfaces. We use distributed Lagrange multipliers to ensure twoway coupling that generates realistic motion for both the solid objects and the fluid as they interact with one another. We call our method the rigid fluid method because the simulator treats the rigid objects as if they were made of fluid. The rigidity of such an object is maintained by identifying the region of the velocity field that is inside the object and constraining those velocities to be rigid body motion. The rigid fluid method is straightforward to implement, incurs very little computational overhead, and can be added as a bridge between current fluid simulators and rigid body solvers. Many solid objects of different densities (e.g., wood or lead) can be combined in the same animation.