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111
The Power of Two Choices in Randomized Load Balancing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 1996
"... Suppose that n balls are placed into n bins, each ball being placed into a bin chosen independently and uniformly at random. Then, with high probability, the maximum load in any bin is approximately log n log log n . Suppose instead that each ball is placed sequentially into the least full of d ..."
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Cited by 200 (22 self)
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Suppose that n balls are placed into n bins, each ball being placed into a bin chosen independently and uniformly at random. Then, with high probability, the maximum load in any bin is approximately log n log log n . Suppose instead that each ball is placed sequentially into the least full of d bins chosen independently and uniformly at random. It has recently been shown that the maximum load is then only log log n log d +O(1) with high probability. Thus giving each ball two choices instead of just one leads to an exponential improvement in the maximum load. This result demonstrates the power of two choices, and it has several applications to load balancing in distributed systems. In this thesis, we expand upon this result by examining related models and by developing techniques for stu...
Utopia: a Load Sharing Facility for Large, Heterogeneous Distributed Computer Systems
, 1993
"... ..."
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 124 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
Adaptive Load Balancing: A Study in MultiAgent Learning
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1995
"... We study the process of multiagent reinforcement learning in the context of load balancing in a distributed system, without use of either central coordination or explicit communication. We first define a precise framework in which to study adaptive load balancing, important features of which are it ..."
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Cited by 80 (0 self)
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We study the process of multiagent reinforcement learning in the context of load balancing in a distributed system, without use of either central coordination or explicit communication. We first define a precise framework in which to study adaptive load balancing, important features of which are its stochastic nature and the purely local information available to individual agents. Given this framework, we show illuminating results on the interplay between basic adaptive behavior parameters and their effect on system efficiency. We then investigate the properties of adaptive load balancing in heterogeneous populations, and address the issue of exploration vs. exploitation in that context. Finally, we show that naive use of communication may not improve, and might even harm system efficiency. 1. Introduction This article investigates multiagent reinforcement learning in the context of a concrete problem of undisputed importance  load balancing. Real life provides us with many exampl...
Process migration
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 2000
"... A process is an operating system abstraction representing an instance of a running computer program. Process migration is the act of transferring a process between two machines during its execution. Several implementations ..."
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Cited by 76 (1 self)
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A process is an operating system abstraction representing an instance of a running computer program. Process migration is the act of transferring a process between two machines during its execution. Several implementations
Methodical Analysis of Adaptive Load Sharing Algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 1992
"... This paper presents a method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of load sharing algorithms, using a number of well known examples as illustration. Algorithm design choices are considered with respect to the main activities of information dissemination and allocation decision making. We argue ..."
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Cited by 70 (2 self)
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This paper presents a method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of load sharing algorithms, using a number of well known examples as illustration. Algorithm design choices are considered with respect to the main activities of information dissemination and allocation decision making. We argue that nodes must be capable of making local decisions, and for this efficient state dissemination techniques are necessary. Activities related to remote execution should be bounded and restricted to a small proportion of the activity in the system. The quantitative analysis provides both performance and efficiency measures, including consideration of the load and delay characteristics of the environment. To assess stability, which is also a precondition for scalability,we introduce and measure load sharing hitratio, the ratio of remote execution requests concluded successfully. Using our analysis method, we are able to suggest improvements to some published algorithms.
A Historical Application Profiler for Use by Parallel Schedulers
 In Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing
, 1997
"... Scheduling algorithms that use application and system knowledge have been shown to be more effective at scheduling parallel jobs on a multiprocessor than algorithms that do not. This paper focuses on obtaining such information for use by a scheduler in a network of workstations environment. The log ..."
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Cited by 66 (0 self)
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Scheduling algorithms that use application and system knowledge have been shown to be more effective at scheduling parallel jobs on a multiprocessor than algorithms that do not. This paper focuses on obtaining such information for use by a scheduler in a network of workstations environment. The log files from three parallel systems are examined to determine both how to categorize parallel jobs for storage in a job database and what job information would be useful to a scheduler. A Historical Profiler is proposed that stores information about programs and users, and manipulates this information to provide schedulers with execution time predictions. Several preemptive and nonpreemptive versions of the FCFS, EASY and Least Work First scheduling algorithms are compared to evaluate the utility of the profiler. It is found that both preemption and the use of application execution time predictions obtained from the Historical Profiler lead to improved performance.
On the Analysis of Randomized Load Balancing Schemes
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH ANNUAL ACM SYMPOSIUM ON PARALLEL ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES
, 1998
"... It is well known that simple randomized load balancing schemes can balance load effectively while incurring only a small overhead, making such schemes appealing for practical systems. In this paper, we provide new analyses for several such dynamic randomized load balancing schemes. Our work extends ..."
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Cited by 55 (7 self)
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It is well known that simple randomized load balancing schemes can balance load effectively while incurring only a small overhead, making such schemes appealing for practical systems. In this paper, we provide new analyses for several such dynamic randomized load balancing schemes. Our work extends a previous analysis of the supermarket model, a model that abstracts a simple, efficient load balancing scheme in the setting where jobs arrive at a large system of parallel processors. In this model, customers arrive at a system of n servers as a Poisson stream of rate #n, # < 1, with service requirements exponentially distributed with mean 1. Each customer chooses d servers independently and uniformly at random from the n servers, and is served according to the First In First Out (FIFO) protocol at the choice with the fewest customers. For the supermarket model, it has been shown that using d = 2 choices yields an exponential improvement in the expected time a customer spends in the syst...
Profiling Workstations' Available Capacity for Remote Execution
, 1987
"... Powerful workstations have become widely available as sources of computing cycles. ..."
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Cited by 46 (3 self)
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Powerful workstations have become widely available as sources of computing cycles.
Extending ProportionalShare Scheduling to a Network of Workstations
 In Proceedings of Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications (PDPTAâ€™97), Las Vegas, NV
, 1997
"... As networks of workstations (NOW) emerge as a viable platform for a wide range of workloads, a new scheduling approach is needed to allocate the collection of resources across competing users. In this paper, we show that extensions to a proportionalshare scheduler for improving response time can st ..."
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Cited by 37 (4 self)
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As networks of workstations (NOW) emerge as a viable platform for a wide range of workloads, a new scheduling approach is needed to allocate the collection of resources across competing users. In this paper, we show that extensions to a proportionalshare scheduler for improving response time can still fairly allocate resources to a mix of sequential, interactive, and parallel jobs in this distributed environment. We find that a proportionalshare scheduler, specifically a stridescheduler, running on each node in the cluster is a good buildingblock. Simple extensions are implemented and analyzed which provide better responsetimes for interactive jobs by giving those jobs their share of resources over a longer timeinterval. When scheduling jobs across the cluster, we show that fairness can be guaranteed if each local scheduler knows the number of tickets issued to each user and if the tickets are balanced across all workstations. Finally, we show that a proportionalshare of resourc...