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70
The Complexity of Concept Languages
, 1995
"... The basic feature of Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems is to represent knowledge by means of taxonomies, here called terminologies, and to provide a specialized reasoning engine to do inferences on these structures. The taxonomy is built through a representation language called concept ..."
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Cited by 228 (33 self)
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The basic feature of Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems is to represent knowledge by means of taxonomies, here called terminologies, and to provide a specialized reasoning engine to do inferences on these structures. The taxonomy is built through a representation language called concept language (or description logic), which is given welldefined settheoretic semantics. The efficiency of reasoning has often been advocated as a primary motivation for the use of such systems. Deduction methods and computational properties of reasoning problems in concept languages are the subject of this paper. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) a complexity analysis of concept satisfiability and subsumption for a wide class of concept languages; (2) the algorithms for these inferences that comply with the worstcase complexity of the reasoning task they perform.
Experimental Results on the Crossover Point in Satisfiability Problems
 In Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1993
"... Determining whether a propositional theory is satisfiable is a prototypical example of an NPcomplete problem. Further, a large number of problems that occur in knowledge representation, learning, planning, and other areas of AI are essentially satisfiability problems. This paper reports on a series ..."
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Cited by 199 (3 self)
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Determining whether a propositional theory is satisfiable is a prototypical example of an NPcomplete problem. Further, a large number of problems that occur in knowledge representation, learning, planning, and other areas of AI are essentially satisfiability problems. This paper reports on a series of experiments to determine the location of the crossover point  the point at which half the randomly generated propositional theories with a given number of variables and given number of clauses are satisfiable  and to assess the relationship of the crossover point to the difficulty of determining satisfiability. We have found empirically that, for 3sat, the number of clauses at the crossover point is a linear function of the number of variables. This result is of theoretical interest since it is not clear why such a linear relationship should exist, but it is also of practical interest since recent experiments [ Mitchell et al. 92; Cheeseman et al. 91 ] indicate that the most comput...
Experimental Results on the Crossover Point in Random 3sat
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1996
"... Determining whether a propositional theory is satisfiable is a prototypical example of an NPcomplete problem. Further, a large number of problems that occur in knowledgerepresentation, learning, planning, and other ares of AI are essentially satisfiability problems. This paper reports on the most ..."
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Cited by 137 (5 self)
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Determining whether a propositional theory is satisfiable is a prototypical example of an NPcomplete problem. Further, a large number of problems that occur in knowledgerepresentation, learning, planning, and other ares of AI are essentially satisfiability problems. This paper reports on the most extensive set of experiments to date on the location and nature of the crossover point in satisfiability problems. These experiments generally confirm previous results with two notable exceptions. First, we have found that neither of the functions previously proposed accurately models the location of the crossover point. Second, we have found no evidence of any hard problems in the underconstrained region. In fact the hardest problems found in the underconstrained region were many times easier than the easiest unsatisfiable problems found in the neighborhood of the crossover point. We offer explanations for these apparent contradictions of previous results. This work has been supported ...
Automatically configuring constraint satisfaction programs: A case study
 CONSTRAINTS
, 1996
"... Multitac is a learning system that synthesizes heuristic constraint satisfaction programs. The system takes a library of generic algorithms and heuristics and specializes them for a particular application. We present a detailed case study with three different distributions ofa single combinatorial ..."
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Cited by 91 (4 self)
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Multitac is a learning system that synthesizes heuristic constraint satisfaction programs. The system takes a library of generic algorithms and heuristics and specializes them for a particular application. We present a detailed case study with three different distributions ofa single combinatorial problem, "Minimum Maximal Matching", and show that Multitac can synthesize programs for these different distributions that perform on par with handcoded programs and that exceed the performance of some wellknown satisfiability algorithms. In synthesizing a program, Multitac bases its choice of heuristics on an instance distribution, and we demonstrate that this capability has a significant impact on the results.
A tutorial on Stålmarck's proof procedure for propositional logic
 Formal Methods in System Design
, 1998
"... We explain Stalmarck's proof procedure for classical propositional logic. The method is implemented in a commercial tool that has been used successfully in real industrial verification projects. Here, we present the proof system underlying the method, and motivate the various design decisions th ..."
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Cited by 64 (1 self)
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We explain Stalmarck's proof procedure for classical propositional logic. The method is implemented in a commercial tool that has been used successfully in real industrial verification projects. Here, we present the proof system underlying the method, and motivate the various design decisions that have resulted in a system that copes well with the large formulas encountered in industrialscale verification. 1
Controlled Integrations of the Cut Rule into Connection Tableau Calculi
"... In this paper techniques are developed and compared which increase the inferential power of tableau systems for classical firstorder logic. The mechanisms are formulated in the framework of connection tableaux, which is an amalgamation of the connection method and the tableau calculus, and a genera ..."
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Cited by 61 (3 self)
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In this paper techniques are developed and compared which increase the inferential power of tableau systems for classical firstorder logic. The mechanisms are formulated in the framework of connection tableaux, which is an amalgamation of the connection method and the tableau calculus, and a generalization of model elimination. Since connection tableau calculi are among the weakest proof systems with respect to proof compactness, and the (backward) cut rule is not suitable for the firstorder case, we study alternative methods for shortening proofs. The techniques we investigate are the folding up and the folding down operation. Folding up represents an efficient way of supporting the basic calculus, which is topdown oriented, with lemmata derived in a bottomup manner. It is shown that both techniques can also be viewed as controlled integrations of the cut rule. In order to remedy the additional redundancy imported into tableau proof procedures by the new inference rules, we develop and apply an extension of the regularity condition on tableaux and the mechanism of antilemmata which realizes a subsumption concept on tableaux. Using the framework of the theorem prover SETHEO, we have implemented three new proof procedures which overcome the deductive weakness of cutfree tableau systems. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the systems with folding up over the cutfree variant and the one with folding down.
EXPTIME tableaux for ALC
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The last years have seen two major advances in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. First, many interesting problems (ranging from Semistructured Data to Linguistics) were shown to be expressible in logics whose main deductive problems are EXPTIMEcomplete. Second, experiments in automated reaso ..."
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Cited by 51 (3 self)
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The last years have seen two major advances in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. First, many interesting problems (ranging from Semistructured Data to Linguistics) were shown to be expressible in logics whose main deductive problems are EXPTIMEcomplete. Second, experiments in automated reasoning have substantially broadened the meaning of “practical tractability”. Instances of realistic size for PSPACEcomplete problems are now within reach for implemented systems. Still, there is a gap between the reasoning services needed by the expressive logics mentioned above and those provided by the current systems. Indeed, the algorithms based on treeautomata, which are used to prove EXPTIMEcompleteness, require exponential time and space even in simple cases. On the other hand, current algorithms based on tableau methods can take advantage of such cases, but require double exponential time in the worst case. We propose a tableau calculus for the description logic ALC for checking the satisfiability of a concept with respect to a TBox with general axioms, and transform it into the first simple tableaubased decision procedure working in single exponential time. To guarantee the ease of implementation, we also discuss the effects that optimizations (propositional backjumping, simplification, semantic branching, etc.) might have on our complexity result, and introduce a few optimizations ourselves.
A FirstOrder Logic DavisPutnamLogemannLoveland Procedure
"... The DavisPutnamLogemannLoveland procedure (DPLL) was introduced in the early ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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The DavisPutnamLogemannLoveland procedure (DPLL) was introduced in the early
Negation as Refutation
, 1989
"... A refutation mechanism is introduced into logic programming, dual to the usual proof mechanism; then negation is treated via refutation. A fourvalued logic is appropriate for the semantics: true, false, neither, both. Inconsistent programs are allowed, but inconsistencies remain localized. The f ..."
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Cited by 28 (5 self)
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A refutation mechanism is introduced into logic programming, dual to the usual proof mechanism; then negation is treated via refutation. A fourvalued logic is appropriate for the semantics: true, false, neither, both. Inconsistent programs are allowed, but inconsistencies remain localized. The fourvalued logic is a wellknown one, due to Belnap, and is the simplest example of Ginsberg's bilattice notion. An e#cient implementation based on semantic tableaux is sketched; it reduces to SLD resolution when negations are not involved. The resulting system can give reasonable answers to queries that involve both negation and free variables. Also it gives the same results as Prolog when there are no negations. Finally, an implementation in Prolog is given. 1 Introduction The most common treatment of negation in logic programming is negationasfailure. This leads to problems that are now familiar: meanings of programs become di#cult to specify; program operators need not reach fix...
Simplification  A general constraint propagation technique for propositional and modal tableaux
, 1998
"... . Tableau and sequent calculi are the basis for most popular interactive theorem provers for formal verification. Yet, when it comes to automatic proof search, tableaux are often slower than DavisPutnam, SAT procedures or other techniques. This is partly due to the absence of a bivalence principle ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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. Tableau and sequent calculi are the basis for most popular interactive theorem provers for formal verification. Yet, when it comes to automatic proof search, tableaux are often slower than DavisPutnam, SAT procedures or other techniques. This is partly due to the absence of a bivalence principle (viz. the cutrule) but there is another source of inefficiency: the lack of constraint propagation mechanisms. This paper proposes an innovation in this direction: the rule of simplification, which plays for tableaux the role of subsumption for resolution and of unit for the DavisPutnam procedure. The simplicity and generality of simplification make possible its extension in a uniform way from propositional logic to a wide range of modal logics. This technique gives an unifying view of a number of tableauxlike calculi such as DPLL, KE, HARP, hypertableaux, BCP, KSAT. We show its practical impact with experimental results for random 3SAT and the industrial IFIP benchmarks for hardware ve...