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131
Consensus and cooperation in networked multiagent systems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
"... Summary. This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An over ..."
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Cited by 279 (2 self)
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Summary. This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in smallworld networks, Markov processes and gossipbased algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with latticetype nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of smallworld effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations.
Sybilguard: Defending against sybil attacks via social networks
 In ACM SIGCOMM ’06
, 2006
"... Peertopeer and other decentralized, distributed systems are known to be particularly vulnerable to sybil attacks. In a sybil attack, a malicious user obtains multiple fake identities and pretends to be multiple, distinct nodes in the system. By controlling a large fraction of the nodes in the syst ..."
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Cited by 208 (6 self)
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Peertopeer and other decentralized, distributed systems are known to be particularly vulnerable to sybil attacks. In a sybil attack, a malicious user obtains multiple fake identities and pretends to be multiple, distinct nodes in the system. By controlling a large fraction of the nodes in the system, the malicious user is able to “out vote” the honest users in collaborative tasks such as Byzantine failure defenses. This paper presents SybilGuard, anovelprotocolfor limiting the corruptive influences of sybil attacks. Our protocol is based on the “social network ” among user identities, where an edge between two identities indicates a humanestablished trust relationship. Malicious users can create many identities but few trust relationships. Thus, there is a disproportionatelysmall “cut ” in the graph between the sybil nodes and the honest nodes. SybilGuard exploits this property to bound the number of identities a malicious user can create. We show the effectiveness of SybilGuard both analytically and experimentally.
Randomized Gossip Algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 2006
"... Motivated by applications to sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed algorithms, also known as gossip algorithms, for exchanging information and for computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. The topology of such networks changes continuously as new nodes join a ..."
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Cited by 208 (5 self)
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Motivated by applications to sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed algorithms, also known as gossip algorithms, for exchanging information and for computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. The topology of such networks changes continuously as new nodes join and old nodes leave the network. Algorithms for such networks need to be robust against changes in topology. Additionally, nodes in sensor networks operate under limited computational, communication, and energy resources. These constraints have motivated the design of “gossip ” algorithms: schemes which distribute the computational burden and in which a node communicates with a randomly chosen neighbor. We analyze the averaging problem under the gossip constraint for an arbitrary network graph, and find that the averaging time of a gossip algorithm depends on the second largest eigenvalue of a doubly stochastic matrix characterizing the algorithm. Designing the fastest gossip algorithm corresponds to minimizing this eigenvalue, which is a semidefinite program (SDP). In general, SDPs cannot be solved in a distributed fashion; however, exploiting problem structure, we propose a distributed subgradient method that solves the optimization problem over the network. The relation of averaging time to the second largest eigenvalue naturally relates it to the mixing time of a random walk with transition probabilities derived from the gossip algorithm. We use this connection to study the performance and scaling of gossip algorithms on two popular networks: Wireless Sensor Networks, which are modeled as Geometric Random Graphs, and the Internet graph under the socalled Preferential Connectivity (PC) model.
A scheme for robust distributed sensor fusion based on average consensus
 Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN
, 2005
"... Abstract — We consider a network of distributed sensors, where each sensor takes a linear measurement of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. We propose a simple distributed iterative scheme, based on distributed average consensus in the network, to compute the maximum ..."
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Cited by 140 (3 self)
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Abstract — We consider a network of distributed sensors, where each sensor takes a linear measurement of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. We propose a simple distributed iterative scheme, based on distributed average consensus in the network, to compute the maximumlikelihood estimate of the parameters. This scheme doesn’t involve explicit pointtopoint message passing or routing; instead, it diffuses information across the network by updating each node’s data with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ data (they maintain the same data structure). At each step, every node can compute a local weighted leastsquares estimate, which converges to the global maximumlikelihood solution. This scheme is robust to unreliable communication links. We show that it works in a network with dynamically changing topology, provided that the infinitely occurring communication graphs are jointly connected. I.
SybilLimit: A nearoptimal social network defense against sybil attacks
 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~yuhf/sybillimittr.pdf
"... Abstract—Openaccess distributed systems such as peertopeer systems are particularly vulnerable to sybil attacks, where a malicious user creates multiple fake identities (called sybil nodes). Without a trusted central authority that can tie identities to real human beings, defending against sybil ..."
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Cited by 126 (7 self)
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Abstract—Openaccess distributed systems such as peertopeer systems are particularly vulnerable to sybil attacks, where a malicious user creates multiple fake identities (called sybil nodes). Without a trusted central authority that can tie identities to real human beings, defending against sybil attacks is quite challenging. Among the small number of decentralized approaches, our recent SybilGuard protocol leverages a key insight on social networks to bound the number of sybil nodes accepted. Despite its promising direction, SybilGuard can allow a large number of sybil nodes to be accepted. Furthermore, SybilGuard assumes that social networks are fastmixing, which has never been confirmed in the real world. This paper presents the novel SybilLimit protocol that leverages the same insight as SybilGuard, but offers dramatically improved and nearoptimal guarantees. The number of sybil nodes accepted is reduced by a factor of 2 ( p n), or around 200 times in our experiments for a millionnode system. We further prove that SybilLimit’s guarantee is at most a log n factor away from optimal when considering approaches based on fastmixing social networks. Finally, based on three largescale realworld social networks, we provide the first evidence that realworld social networks are indeed fastmixing. This validates the fundamental assumption behind SybilLimit’s and SybilGuard’s approach. Index Terms—Social networks, sybil attack, sybil identities, SybilGuard, SybilLimit. I.
Geographic Gossip: Efficient Aggregation for Sensor Networks
 in Proc. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN
, 2006
"... Gossip algorithms for aggregation have recently received significant attention for sensor network applications because of their simplicity and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, gossip algorithms can waste significant energy by essentially passing around redundant information m ..."
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Cited by 80 (4 self)
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Gossip algorithms for aggregation have recently received significant attention for sensor network applications because of their simplicity and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, gossip algorithms can waste significant energy by essentially passing around redundant information multiple times. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is caused by slow mixing times of random walks on those graphs. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing a simple resampling method, we can demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. In particular, for random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy 1/n a using O(n 1.5 √ log n) radio transmissions, which reduces the energy consumption by a algorithms. q n factor over standard gossip log n
Distributed Subgradient Methods for Multiagent Optimization
, 2007
"... We study a distributed computation model for optimizing a sum of convex objective functions corresponding to multiple agents. For solving this (not necessarily smooth) optimization problem, we consider a subgradient method that is distributed among the agents. The method involves every agent minimiz ..."
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Cited by 77 (19 self)
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We study a distributed computation model for optimizing a sum of convex objective functions corresponding to multiple agents. For solving this (not necessarily smooth) optimization problem, we consider a subgradient method that is distributed among the agents. The method involves every agent minimizing his/her own objective function while exchanging information locally with other agents in the network over a timevarying topology. We provide convergence results and convergence rate estimates for the subgradient method. Our convergence rate results explicitly characterize the tradeoff between a desired accuracy of the generated approximate optimal solutions and the number of iterations needed to achieve the accuracy.
All Your Contacts Are Belong to Us: Automated Identity Theft Attacks on Social Networks
"... Social networking sites have been increasingly gaining popularity. Wellknown sites such as Facebook have been reporting growth rates as high as 3 % per week [5]. Many social networking sites have millions of registered users who use these sites to share photographs, contact longlost friends, estab ..."
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Cited by 66 (10 self)
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Social networking sites have been increasingly gaining popularity. Wellknown sites such as Facebook have been reporting growth rates as high as 3 % per week [5]. Many social networking sites have millions of registered users who use these sites to share photographs, contact longlost friends, establish new business contacts and to keep in touch. In this paper, we investigate how easy it would be for a potential attacker to launch automated crawling and identity theft attacks against a number of popular social networking sites in order to gain access to a large volume of personal user information. The first attack we present is the automated identity theft of existing user profiles and sending of friend requests to the contacts of the cloned victim. The hope, from the attacker’s point of view, is that the contacted users simply trust and accept the friend request. By establishing a friendship relationship with the contacts of a victim, the attacker is able to access the sensitive personal information provided by them. In the second, more advanced attack we present, we show that it is effective and feasible to launch an automated, crosssite profile cloning attack. In this attack, we are able to automatically create a forged profile in a network where the victim is not registered yet and contact the victim’s friends who are registered on both networks. Our experimental results with real users show that the automated attacks we present are effective and feasible in practice. Categories andSubject Descriptors
Consensus propagation
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
"... Abstract — We propose consensus propagation, an asynchronous distributed protocol for averaging numbers across a network. We establish convergence, characterize the convergence rate for regular graphs, and demonstrate that the protocol exhibits better scaling properties than pairwise averaging, an a ..."
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Cited by 61 (6 self)
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Abstract — We propose consensus propagation, an asynchronous distributed protocol for averaging numbers across a network. We establish convergence, characterize the convergence rate for regular graphs, and demonstrate that the protocol exhibits better scaling properties than pairwise averaging, an alternative that has received much recent attention. Consensus propagation can be viewed as a special case of belief propagation, and our results contribute to the belief propagation literature. In particular, beyond singlyconnected graphs, there are very few classes of relevant problems for which belief propagation is known to converge. Index Terms — belief propagation, distributed averaging, distributed consensus, distributed signal processing, Gaussian Markov random fields, messagepassing algorithms, maxproduct algorithm, minsum algorithm, sumproduct algorithm. I.
Decentralized Compression and Predistribution via Randomized Gossiping
 in Proc. of the Fifth International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN
, 2006
"... Developing energy efficient strategies for the extraction, transmission, and dissemination of information is a core theme in wireless sensor network research. In this paper we present a novel system for decentralized data compression and predistribution. The system simultaneously computes random pro ..."
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Cited by 60 (11 self)
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Developing energy efficient strategies for the extraction, transmission, and dissemination of information is a core theme in wireless sensor network research. In this paper we present a novel system for decentralized data compression and predistribution. The system simultaneously computes random projections of the sensor data and disseminates them throughout the network using a simple gossiping algorithm. These summary statistics are stored in an efficient manner and can be extracted from a small subset of nodes anywhere in the network. From these measurements one can reconstruct an accurate approximation of the data at all nodes in the network, provided the original data is compressible in a certain sense which need not be known to the nodes ahead of time. The system provides a practical and universal approach to decentralized compression and content distribution in wireless sensor networks. Two example applications, network health monitoring and field estimation, demonstrate the utility of our method.