Results 1  10
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36
Locally Bayesian Learning with Applications to Retrospective Revaluation and Highlighting
 Psychological Review
, 2006
"... A scheme is described for locally Bayesian parameter updating in models structured as successions of component functions. The essential idea is to backpropagate the target data to interior modules, such that an interior component’s target is the input to the next component that maximizes the probab ..."
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Cited by 26 (7 self)
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A scheme is described for locally Bayesian parameter updating in models structured as successions of component functions. The essential idea is to backpropagate the target data to interior modules, such that an interior component’s target is the input to the next component that maximizes the probability of the next component’s target. Each layer then does locally Bayesian learning. The approach assumes online trialbytrial learning. The resulting parameter updating is not globally Bayesian but can better capture human behavior. The approach is implemented for an associative learning model that first maps inputs to attentionally filtered inputs and then maps attentionally filtered inputs to outputs. The Bayesian updating allows the associative model to exhibit retrospective revaluation effects such as backward blocking and unovershadowing, which have been challenging for associative learning models. The backpropagation of target values to attention allows the model to show trialorder effects, including highlighting and differences in magnitude of forward and backward blocking, which have been challenging for Bayesian learning models.
Gibbs sampling, exponential families and orthogonal polynomials
 Statistical Sciences
, 2008
"... Abstract. We give families of examples where sharp rates of convergence to stationarity of the widely used Gibbs sampler are available. The examples involve standard exponential families and their conjugate priors. In each case, the transition operator is explicitly diagonalizable with classical ort ..."
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Cited by 19 (6 self)
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Abstract. We give families of examples where sharp rates of convergence to stationarity of the widely used Gibbs sampler are available. The examples involve standard exponential families and their conjugate priors. In each case, the transition operator is explicitly diagonalizable with classical orthogonal polynomials as eigenfunctions. Key words and phrases: Gibbs sampler, running time analyses, exponential families, conjugate priors, location families, orthogonal polynomials, singular value decomposition. 1.
THE MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO REVOLUTION
"... Abstract. The use of simulation for highdimensional intractable computations has revolutionized applied mathematics. Designing, improving and understanding the new tools leads to (and leans on) fascinating mathematics, from representation theory through microlocal analysis. 1. ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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Abstract. The use of simulation for highdimensional intractable computations has revolutionized applied mathematics. Designing, improving and understanding the new tools leads to (and leans on) fascinating mathematics, from representation theory through microlocal analysis. 1.
Assessing the Distinguishability of Models and the Informativeness of Data
"... A difficulty in the development and testing of psychological models is that they are typically evaluated solely on their ability to fit experimental data, with little consideration given to their ability to fit other possible data patterns. By examining how well model A fits data generated by mod ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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A difficulty in the development and testing of psychological models is that they are typically evaluated solely on their ability to fit experimental data, with little consideration given to their ability to fit other possible data patterns. By examining how well model A fits data generated by model B, and vice versa (a technique that we call landscaping), much safer inferences can be made about the meaning of a models fit to data. We demonstrate the landscaping technique using four models of retention and 77 historical data sets, and show how the method can be used to (1) evaluate the distinguishability of models, (2) evaluate the informativeness of data in distinguishing between models, and (3) suggest new ways to distinguish between models. The generality of the method is demonstrated in two other research areas (information integration and categorization), and its relationship to the important notion of model complexity is discussed.
Item factor analysis: Current approaches and future directions
 Psychological Methods
, 2007
"... The rationale underlying factor analysis applies to continuous and categorical variables alike; however, the models and estimation methods for continuous (i.e., interval or ratio scale) data are not appropriate for itemlevel data that are categorical in nature. The authors provide a targeted review ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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The rationale underlying factor analysis applies to continuous and categorical variables alike; however, the models and estimation methods for continuous (i.e., interval or ratio scale) data are not appropriate for itemlevel data that are categorical in nature. The authors provide a targeted review and synthesis of the item factor analysis (IFA) estimation literature for orderedcategorical data (e.g., Likerttype response scales) with specific attention paid to the problems of estimating models with many items and many factors. Popular IFA models and estimation methods found in the structural equation modeling and item response theory literatures are presented. Following this presentation, recent developments in the estimation of IFA parameters (e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo) are discussed. The authors conclude with considerations for future research on IFA, simulated examples, and advice for applied researchers.
Why Psychologists Must Change the Way They Analyze Their Data: The Case of Psi
"... Does psi exist? In a recent article, Dr. Bem conducted nine studies with over a thousand participants in an attempt to demonstrate that future events retroactively affect people’s responses. Here we discuss several limitations of Bem’s experiments on psi; in particular, we show that the data analysi ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Does psi exist? In a recent article, Dr. Bem conducted nine studies with over a thousand participants in an attempt to demonstrate that future events retroactively affect people’s responses. Here we discuss several limitations of Bem’s experiments on psi; in particular, we show that the data analysis was partly exploratory, and that onesided pvalues may overstate the statistical evidence against the null hypothesis. We reanalyze Bem’s data using a default Bayesian ttest and show that the evidence for psi is weak to nonexistent. We argue that in order to convince a skeptical audience of a controversial claim, one needs to conduct strictly confirmatory studies and analyze the results with statistical tests that are conservative rather than liberal. We conclude that Bem’s pvalues do not indicate evidence in favor of precognition; instead, they indicate that experimental psychologists need to change the way they conduct their experiments and analyze their data.
FeedMe: a collaborative alert filtering system
 In Proceedings of the 2006 20th Anniversary Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
, 2006
"... As the number of alerts generated by collaborative applications grows, users receive more unwanted alerts. FeedMe is a general alert management system based on XML feed protocols such as RSS and ATOM. In addition to traditional rulebased alert filtering, FeedMe uses techniques from machinelearning ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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As the number of alerts generated by collaborative applications grows, users receive more unwanted alerts. FeedMe is a general alert management system based on XML feed protocols such as RSS and ATOM. In addition to traditional rulebased alert filtering, FeedMe uses techniques from machinelearning to infer alert preferences based on user feedback. In this paper, we present and evaluate a new collaborative naïve Bayes filtering algorithm. Using FeedMe, we collected alert ratings from 33 users over 29 days. We used the data to design and verify the accuracy of the filtering algorithm and provide insights into alert prediction. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.3 [Group and Organization Interfaces]: Collaborative
Improving the Fitness of HighDimensional Biomechanical Models via DataDriven Stochastic Exploration
, 2008
"... Abstract—The field of complex biomechanical modeling has begun to rely on Monte Carlo techniques to investigate the effects of parameter variability and measurement uncertainty on model outputs, search for optimal parameter combinations, and define model limitations. However, advanced stochastic met ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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Abstract—The field of complex biomechanical modeling has begun to rely on Monte Carlo techniques to investigate the effects of parameter variability and measurement uncertainty on model outputs, search for optimal parameter combinations, and define model limitations. However, advanced stochastic methods to perform datadriven explorations, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), become necessary as the number of model parameters increases. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and, what to our knowledge is, the first use of an MCMC approach to improve the fitness of realistically large biomechanical models. We used a Metropolis–Hastings algorithm to search increasingly complex parameter landscapes (3, 8, 24, and 36 dimensions) to uncover underlying distributions of anatomical parameters of a “truth model” of the human thumb on the basis of simulated kinematic data (thumbnail location, orientation, and linear and angular velocities)
MCMCpack: Markov Chain Monte Carlo in R
 Journal of Statistical Software
, 2011
"... We introduce MCMCpack (Martin and Quinn 2007), an R package that contains functions to perform Bayesian inference using posterior simulation for a number of statistical models. In addition to code that can be used to fit commonly used models, MCMCpack also contains some useful utility functions, inc ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We introduce MCMCpack (Martin and Quinn 2007), an R package that contains functions to perform Bayesian inference using posterior simulation for a number of statistical models. In addition to code that can be used to fit commonly used models, MCMCpack also contains some useful utility functions, including some additional density functions and pseudorandom number generators for statistical distributions, a general purpose Metropolis sampling algorithm, and tools for visualization.
Steel MomentResisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One
, 2008
"... This thesis exists because of the vision and guidance of my advisor, Professor Tom Heaton. Tom was always available to provide explanations when I was (frequently) confused, discuss the directions and implications of my research, and encourage me through the difficult times. I truly appreciate his r ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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This thesis exists because of the vision and guidance of my advisor, Professor Tom Heaton. Tom was always available to provide explanations when I was (frequently) confused, discuss the directions and implications of my research, and encourage me through the difficult times. I truly appreciate his ready advice and support. Members of my committee also challenged me and provided guidance for this thesis. Professor Jim Beck helped me to learn and apply the Bayesian model class selection method. Professor John Hall provided the building designs and models, and he helped me interpret the results. Dr Tom Jordan gave me excellent feedback on this thesis and provided additional information on current ground motion simulation studies. Professor Zee Durón introduced me to research as an undergraduate and encouraged me to continue my studies at Caltech. He has continued to provide invaluable guidance and support. This research was funded, in part, by the Southern California Earthquake Center. I used their allotment on the University of Southern California High Performance Computing Center cluster to calculate the building responses in this thesis. This thesis would not have been completed in a timely manner if not for this funding and access to a reliable computing cluster. This research also received support from a Hartley Fellowship and from a Housner Fellowship.