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102
CUDD: CU Decision Diagram Package Release 2.2.0
, 1998
"... The CUDD package provides functions to manipulate Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) [5,3], Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADDs) [1], and Zero suppressed Decision Diagrams (ZDDs) [12]. BDDs are used to represent switch functions ..."
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Cited by 228 (0 self)
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The CUDD package provides functions to manipulate Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) [5,3], Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADDs) [1], and Zero suppressed Decision Diagrams (ZDDs) [12]. BDDs are used to represent switch functions
The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co ..."
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Cited by 188 (0 self)
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
Exact algorithms for NPhard problems: A survey
 Combinatorial Optimization  Eureka, You Shrink!, LNCS
"... Abstract. We discuss fast exponential time solutions for NPcomplete problems. We survey known results and approaches, we provide pointers to the literature, and we discuss several open problems in this area. The list of discussed NPcomplete problems includes the travelling salesman problem, schedu ..."
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Cited by 118 (3 self)
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Abstract. We discuss fast exponential time solutions for NPcomplete problems. We survey known results and approaches, we provide pointers to the literature, and we discuss several open problems in this area. The list of discussed NPcomplete problems includes the travelling salesman problem, scheduling under precedence constraints, satisfiability, knapsack, graph coloring, independent sets in graphs, bandwidth of a graph, and many more. 1
Measure and conquer: domination  a case study
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 32ND INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM ON AUTOMATA, LANGUAGES AND PROGRAMMING (ICALP 2005), SPRINGER LNCS
, 2005
"... DavisPutnamstyle exponentialtime backtracking algorithms are the most common algorithms used for finding exact solutions of NPhard problems. The analysis of such recursive algorithms is based on the bounded search tree technique: a measure of the size of the subproblems is defined; this measure ..."
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Cited by 48 (20 self)
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DavisPutnamstyle exponentialtime backtracking algorithms are the most common algorithms used for finding exact solutions of NPhard problems. The analysis of such recursive algorithms is based on the bounded search tree technique: a measure of the size of the subproblems is defined; this measure is used to lower bound the progress made by the algorithm at each branching step. For the last 30 years the research on exact algorithms has been mainly focused on the design of more and more sophisticated algorithms. However, measures used in the analysis of backtracking algorithms are usually very simple. In this paper we stress that a more careful choice of the measure can lead to significantly better worst case time analysis. As an example, we consider the minimum dominating set problem. The currently fastest algorithm for this problem has running time O(2 0.850n) on nnodes graphs. By measuring the progress of the (same) algorithm in a different way, we refine the time bound to O(2 0.598n). A good choice of the measure can provide such a (surprisingly big) improvement; this suggests that the running time of many other exponentialtime recursive algorithms is largely overestimated because of a “bad” choice of the measure.
Expected computation time for Hamiltonian Path Problem and clique problem
, 1984
"... Abstract. One way to cope with an NPhard problem is to find an algorithm that is fact on average with respect to a natural probability distribution on inputs. We consider from that point of view the Hamiltonian Path Problem. Our algorithm for the Hamiltonian Path Problem constructs or establishes t ..."
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Cited by 41 (1 self)
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Abstract. One way to cope with an NPhard problem is to find an algorithm that is fact on average with respect to a natural probability distribution on inputs. We consider from that point of view the Hamiltonian Path Problem. Our algorithm for the Hamiltonian Path Problem constructs or establishes the nonexistence of a Hamiltonian path. For a fixed probability p, the expected runtime of our algorithm on a random graph with n vertices and the edge probability p is O(n). The algorithm is adaptable to directed graphs. Key words, average case complexity, NPhard Hamiltonian circuit, Hamiltonian path, probability, random graphs, expected polynomial time, expected sublinear time AMS(MOS) subject classifications. 05G35, 60C05, 68A10, 68A20 Introduction. One way to cope with an NPhard decision problem iyR(x, y) is to find an algorithm that is fast on average with respect to a natural probability distribution on inputs. See in this connection Levin (1984) and Johnson (1984). A similar approach can be taken if one is interested in exhibiting an object y that witnesses R(x, y), and not only in the existence of a witness. We consider from this point of
A measure & conquer approach for the analysis of exact algorithms
, 2007
"... For more than 40 years Branch & Reduce exponentialtime backtracking algorithms have been among the most common tools used for finding exact solutions of NPhard problems. Despite that, the way to analyze such recursive algorithms is still far from producing tight worstcase running time bounds. Mot ..."
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Cited by 30 (7 self)
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For more than 40 years Branch & Reduce exponentialtime backtracking algorithms have been among the most common tools used for finding exact solutions of NPhard problems. Despite that, the way to analyze such recursive algorithms is still far from producing tight worstcase running time bounds. Motivated by this we use an approach, that we call “Measure & Conquer”, as an attempt to step beyond such limitations. The approach is based on the careful design of a nonstandard measure of the subproblem size; this measure is then used to lower bound the progress made by the algorithm at each branching step. The idea is that a smarter measure may capture behaviors of the algorithm that a standard measure might not be able to exploit, and hence lead to a significantly better worstcase time analysis. In order to show the potentialities of Measure & Conquer, we consider two wellstudied NPhard problems: minimum dominating set and maximum independent set. For the first problem, we consider the current best algorithm, and prove (thanks to a better measure) a much tighter running time bound for it. For the second problem, we describe a new, simple algorithm, and show that its running time is competitive with the current best time bounds, achieved with far more complicated algorithms (and standard analysis). Our examples
Word reordering and a dynamic programming beam search algorithm for statistical machine translation
 Computational Linguistics
, 2003
"... In this article, we describe an efficient beam search algorithm for statistical machine translation based on dynamic programming (DP). The search algorithm uses the translation model presented in Brown et al. (1993). Starting from a DPbased solution to the travelingsalesman problem, we present a n ..."
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Cited by 30 (5 self)
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In this article, we describe an efficient beam search algorithm for statistical machine translation based on dynamic programming (DP). The search algorithm uses the translation model presented in Brown et al. (1993). Starting from a DPbased solution to the travelingsalesman problem, we present a novel technique to restrict the possible word reorderings between source and target language in order to achieve an efficient search algorithm. Word reordering restrictions especially useful for the translation direction German to English are presented. The restrictions are generalized, and a set of four parameters to control the word reordering is introduced, which then can easily be adopted to new translation directions. The beam search procedure has been successfully tested on the Verbmobil task (German to English, 8,000word vocabulary) and on the Canadian Hansards task (French to English, 100,000word vocabulary). For the mediumsized Verbmobil task, a sentence can be translated in a few seconds, only a small number of search errors occur, and there is no performance degradation as measured by the word error criterion used in this article. 1.
Special cases of traveling salesman and repairman problems with time windows
 Networks
, 1992
"... Consider a complete directed graph in which each arc has a given length. There is a set ofjobs, each job i located at some node of the graph, with an associated processing time hi, and whose execution has to start within a prespecified time window [r;, di]. We have a single server that can move on t ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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Consider a complete directed graph in which each arc has a given length. There is a set ofjobs, each job i located at some node of the graph, with an associated processing time hi, and whose execution has to start within a prespecified time window [r;, di]. We have a single server that can move on the arcs of the graph, at unit speed, and that has to execute all of the jobs within their respective time windows. We consider the following two problems: (a) minimize the time by which all jobs are executed (traveling salesman problem) and (b) minimize the sum of the waiting times of the jobs (traveling repairman problem). We focus on the following two special cases: (a) The jobs are located on a line and (b) the number of nodes of the graph is bounded by some integer constant B. Furthermore, we consider in detail the special cases where (a) all of the processing times are 0, (b) all of the release times ri are 0, and (c) all of the deadlines di are infinite. For many of the resulting problem combinations, we settle their complexity either by establishing NPcompleteness or by presenting polynomial (or pseudopolynomial) time algorithms. Finally, we derive algorithms for the case where, for any time t, the number of jobs that can be executed at that time is bounded. I.
Exact algorithms for treewidth and minimum fillin
 In Proceedings of the 31st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2004). Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci
, 2004
"... We show that the treewidth and the minimum fillin of an nvertex graph can be computed in time O(1.8899 n). Our results are based on combinatorial proofs that an nvertex graph has O(1.7087 n) minimal separators and O(1.8135 n) potential maximal cliques. We also show that for the class of ATfree g ..."
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Cited by 26 (15 self)
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We show that the treewidth and the minimum fillin of an nvertex graph can be computed in time O(1.8899 n). Our results are based on combinatorial proofs that an nvertex graph has O(1.7087 n) minimal separators and O(1.8135 n) potential maximal cliques. We also show that for the class of ATfree graphs the running time of our algorithms can be reduced to O(1.4142 n).