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36
How good are convex hull algorithms?
, 1996
"... A convex polytope P can be speci ed in two ways: as the convex hull of the vertex set V of P, or as the intersection of the set H of its facetinducing halfspaces. The vertex enumeration problem is to compute V from H. The facet enumeration problem it to compute H from V. These two problems are esse ..."
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Cited by 110 (9 self)
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A convex polytope P can be speci ed in two ways: as the convex hull of the vertex set V of P, or as the intersection of the set H of its facetinducing halfspaces. The vertex enumeration problem is to compute V from H. The facet enumeration problem it to compute H from V. These two problems are essentially equivalent under point/hyperplane duality. They are among the central computational problems in the theory of polytopes. It is open whether they can be solved in time polynomial in jHj + jVj. In this paper we consider the main known classes of algorithms for solving these problems. We argue that they all have at least one of two weaknesses: inability todealwell with "degeneracies," or, inability tocontrol the sizes of intermediate results. We then introduce families of polytopes that exercise those weaknesses. Roughly speaking, fatlattice or intricate polytopes cause algorithms with bad degeneracy handling to perform badly; dwarfed polytopes cause algorithms with bad intermediate size control to perform badly. We also present computational experience with trying to solve these problem on these hard polytopes, using various implementations of the main algorithms.
Higherdimensional Voronoi diagrams in linear expected time
 In SCG’89
, 1989
"... expected time ..."
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Optimal OutputSensitive Convex Hull Algorithms in Two and Three Dimensions
, 1996
"... We present simple outputsensitive algorithms that construct the convex hull of a set of n points in two or three dimensions in worstcase optimal O(n log h) time and O(n) space, where h denotes the number of vertices of the convex hull. ..."
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Cited by 78 (7 self)
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We present simple outputsensitive algorithms that construct the convex hull of a set of n points in two or three dimensions in worstcase optimal O(n log h) time and O(n) space, where h denotes the number of vertices of the convex hull.
OutputSensitive Results on Convex Hulls, Extreme Points, and Related Problems
, 1996
"... . We use known data structures for rayshooting and linearprogramming queries to derive new outputsensitive results on convex hulls, extreme points, and related problems. We show that the f face convex hull of an npoint set P in a fixed dimension d # 2 can be constructed in O(n log f + (nf) ..."
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Cited by 75 (13 self)
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. We use known data structures for rayshooting and linearprogramming queries to derive new outputsensitive results on convex hulls, extreme points, and related problems. We show that the f face convex hull of an npoint set P in a fixed dimension d # 2 can be constructed in O(n log f + (nf) 11/(#d/2#+1) log O(1) n) time; this is optimal if f = O(n 1/#d/2# / log K n) for some sufficiently large constant K . We also show that the h extreme points of P can be computed in O(n log O(1) h + (nh) 11/(#d/2#+1) log O(1) n) time. These results are then applied to produce an algorithm that computes the vertices of all the convex layers of P in O(n 2# ) time for any constant #<2/(#d/2# 2 + 1). Finally, we obtain improved time bounds for other problems including levels in arrangements and linear programming with few violated constraints. In all of our algorithms the input is assumed to be in general position. 1. Introduction Let P be a set of n points in ddimen...
Constrained Delaunay Tetrahedralizations and Provably Good Boundary Recovery
 In Eleventh International Meshing Roundtable
, 2002
"... In two dimensions, a constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) respects a set of segments that constrain the edges of the triangulation, while still maintaining most of the favorable properties of ordinary Delaunay triangulations (such as maximizing the minimum angle). CDTs solve the problem of enfor ..."
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Cited by 45 (1 self)
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In two dimensions, a constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) respects a set of segments that constrain the edges of the triangulation, while still maintaining most of the favorable properties of ordinary Delaunay triangulations (such as maximizing the minimum angle). CDTs solve the problem of enforcing boundary conformityensuring that triangulation edges cover the boundaries (both interior and exterior) of the domain being modeled. This paper discusses the threedimensional analogue, constrained Delaunay tetrahedralizations (also called CDTs), and their advantages in mesh generation. CDTs maintain most of the favorable properties of ordinary Delaunay tetrahedralizations, but they are more difficult to work with, because some sets of constraining segments and facets simply do not have CDTs. However, boundary conformity can always be enforced by judicious insertion of additional vertices, combined with CDTs. This approach has three advantages over other methods for boundary recovery: it usually requires fewer additional vertices to be inserted, it yields provably good bounds on edge lengths (i.e. edges are not made unnecessarily short), and it interacts well with provably good Delaunay refinement methods for tetrahedral mesh generation.
PrimalDual Methods for Vertex and Facet Enumeration
 Discrete and Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... Every convex polytope can be represented as the intersection of a finite set of halfspaces and as the convex hull of its vertices. Transforming from the halfspace (respectively vertex) to the vertex (respectively halfspace) representation is called vertex enumeration (respectively facet enumeration) ..."
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Cited by 42 (7 self)
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Every convex polytope can be represented as the intersection of a finite set of halfspaces and as the convex hull of its vertices. Transforming from the halfspace (respectively vertex) to the vertex (respectively halfspace) representation is called vertex enumeration (respectively facet enumeration). An open question is whether there is an algorithm for these two problems (equivalent by geometric duality) that is polynomial in the input size and the output size. In this paper, we extend the known polynomially solvable classes of polytopes by looking at the dual problems. The dual problem of a vertex (facet, respectively) enumeration problem is the facet (vertex) enumeration problem for the same polytope where the input and output are simply interchanged. For a particular class of polytopes and a fixed algorithm, one transformation may be much easier than its dual. In this paper, we propose a new class of algorithms that take advantage of this phenomenon. Loosely speaking, primaldual ...
Primal Dividing and Dual Pruning: OutputSensitive Construction of 4d Polytopes and 3d Voronoi Diagrams
, 1997
"... In this paper, we give an algorithm for outputsensitive construction of an fface convex hull of a set of n points in general position in E 4 . Our algorithm runs in O((n + f)log 2 f) time and uses O(n + f) space. This is the first algorithm within a polylogarithmic factor of optimal O(n log f ..."
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Cited by 39 (3 self)
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In this paper, we give an algorithm for outputsensitive construction of an fface convex hull of a set of n points in general position in E 4 . Our algorithm runs in O((n + f)log 2 f) time and uses O(n + f) space. This is the first algorithm within a polylogarithmic factor of optimal O(n log f + f) time over the whole range of f . By a standard lifting map, we obtain outputsensitive algorithms for the Voronoi diagram or Delaunay triangulation in E 3 and for the portion of a Voronoi diagram that is clipped to a convex polytope. Our approach simplifies the "ultimate convex hull algorithm" of Kirkpatrick and Seidel in E 2 and also leads to improved outputsensitive results on constructing convex hulls in E d for any even constant d ? 4. 1 Introduction Geometric structures induced by n points in Euclidean ddimensional space, such as the convex hull, Voronoi diagram, or Delaunay triangulation, can be of larger size than the point set that defines them. In many practical situat...
Generating All Vertices of a Polyhedron Is Hard
 DISCRETE COMPUT GEOM (2008 ) 39 : 174–190 175
, 2008
"... We show that generating all negative cycles of a weighted graph is a hard enumeration problem, in both the directed and undirected cases. More precisely, given a family of negative (directed) cycles, it is an NPcomplete problem to decide whether this family can be extended or there are no other ne ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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We show that generating all negative cycles of a weighted graph is a hard enumeration problem, in both the directed and undirected cases. More precisely, given a family of negative (directed) cycles, it is an NPcomplete problem to decide whether this family can be extended or there are no other negative (directed) cycles in the graph, implying that (directed) negative cycles cannot be generated in polynomial output time, unless P = NP. As a corollary, we solve in the negative two wellknown generating problems from linear programming: (i) Given an infeasible system of linear inequalities, generating all minimal infeasible subsystems is hard. Yet, for generating maximal feasible subsystems the complexity remains open. (ii) Given a feasible system of linear inequalities, generating all vertices of the corresponding polyhedron is hard. Yet, in the case of bounded polyhedra the complexity remains
New Lower Bounds for Convex Hull Problems in Odd Dimensions
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1996
"... We show that in the worst case, Ω(n dd=2e\Gamma1 +n log n) sidedness queries are required to determine whether the convex hull of n points in R^d is simplicial, or to determine the number of convex hull facets. This lower bound matches known upper bounds in any odd dimension. Our result fo ..."
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Cited by 35 (6 self)
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We show that in the worst case, &Omega;(n dd=2e\Gamma1 +n log n) sidedness queries are required to determine whether the convex hull of n points in R^d is simplicial, or to determine the number of convex hull facets. This lower bound matches known upper bounds in any odd dimension. Our result follows from a straightforward adversary argument. A key step in the proof is the construction of a quasisimplicial nvertex polytope with &Omega;(n dd=2e\Gamma1 ) degenerate facets. While it has been known for several years that ddimensional convex hulls can have &Omega;(n bd=2c ) facets, the previously best lower bound for these problems is only &Omega;(n log n). Using similar techniques, we also obtain simple and correct proofs of Erickson and Seidel's lower bounds for detecting affine degeneracies in arbitrary dimensions and circular degeneracies in the plane. As a related result, we show that detecting simplicial convex hulls in R^d is &lceil;d/2&rceil;hard, in the in the sense of Gajentaan and Overmars.
Classification of eight dimensional perfect forms
 MATH
, 2007
"... In this paper, we classify the perfect lattices in dimension 8. There are 10916 of them. Our classification heavily relies on exploiting symmetry in polyhedral computations. Here we describe algorithms making the classification possible. ..."
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Cited by 27 (13 self)
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In this paper, we classify the perfect lattices in dimension 8. There are 10916 of them. Our classification heavily relies on exploiting symmetry in polyhedral computations. Here we describe algorithms making the classification possible.