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630
Capacity of MultiChannel Wireless Networks with Random (c, f) Assignment
, 2007
"... With the availability of multiple unlicensed spectral bands, and potential costbased limitations on the capabilities of individual nodes, it is increasingly relevant to study the performance of multichannel wireless networks with channel switching constraints. To this effect, some constraint models ..."
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Cited by 161 (10 self)
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With the availability of multiple unlicensed spectral bands, and potential costbased limitations on the capabilities of individual nodes, it is increasingly relevant to study the performance of multichannel wireless networks with channel switching constraints. To this effect, some constraint models have been recently proposed, and connectivity and capacity results have been formulated for networks of randomly deployed singleinterface nodes subject to these constraints. One of these constraint models is termed random (c, f) assignment, wherein each node is preassigned a random subset of f channels out of c (each having bandwidth W c), and may only switch on these. Previous results for this model established bounds on network capacity, and proved that when c = O(logn), the perprnd f flow capacity is O(W nlogn) and Ω(W cnlogn) (where prnd = 1 −(1 − f f f f 2 c)(1 − c−1)...(1 − c − f+1) ≥ 1 − e − c). In this paper we present a lower bound construction that matches the previous upper prnd bound. This establishes the capacity as Θ(W nlogn). The surprising implication of this result is that when f = Ω ( √ c), random (c, f) assignment yields capacity of the same order as attainable via unconstrained switching. The routing/scheduling procedure used by us to achieve capacity requires synchronized routeconstruction for all flows in the network, leading to the open question of whether it is possible to achieve capacity using asynchronous procedures.
Connectivity in AdHoc and Hybrid Networks
 IN PROC. IEEE INFOCOM
, 2002
"... We consider a largescale wireless network, but with a low density of nodes per unit area. Interferences are then less critical, contrary to connectivity. This paper studies the latter property for both a purely adhoc network and a hybrid network, where fixed base stations can be reached in multipl ..."
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Cited by 160 (6 self)
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We consider a largescale wireless network, but with a low density of nodes per unit area. Interferences are then less critical, contrary to connectivity. This paper studies the latter property for both a purely adhoc network and a hybrid network, where fixed base stations can be reached in multiple hops. We assume here that power constraints are modeled by a maximal distance above which two nodes are not (directly) connected. We find that
Impact of human mobility on the design of opportunistic forwarding algorithms
 In Proc. IEEE Infocom
, 2006
"... Abstract — Studying transfer opportunities between wireless devices carried by humans, we observe that the distribution of the intercontact time, that is the time gap separating two contacts of the same pair of devices, exhibits a heavy tail such as one of a power law, over a large range of value. ..."
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Cited by 155 (10 self)
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Abstract — Studying transfer opportunities between wireless devices carried by humans, we observe that the distribution of the intercontact time, that is the time gap separating two contacts of the same pair of devices, exhibits a heavy tail such as one of a power law, over a large range of value. This observation is confirmed on six distinct experimental data sets. It is at odds with the exponential decay implied by most mobility models. In this paper, we study how this new characteristic of human mobility impacts a class of previously proposed forwarding algorithms. We use a simplified model based on the renewal theory to study how the parameters of the distribution impact the delay performance of these algorithms. We make recommendation for the design of well founded opportunistic forwarding algorithms, in the context of human carried devices. I.
Efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks: The multiplecopy case
, 2008
"... Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc net ..."
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Cited by 149 (17 self)
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Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. In this context, conventional routing schemes fail, because they try to establish complete endtoend paths, before any data is sent. To deal with such networks researchers have suggested to use floodingbased routing schemes. While floodingbased schemes have a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot of energy and suffer from severe contention which can significantly degrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts to reduce the overhead of floodingbased schemes have often been plagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a new family of routing schemes that “spray ” a few message copies into the network, and then route each copy independently towards the destination. We show that, if carefully designed, spray routing not only performs significantly fewer transmissions per message, but also has lower average delivery delays than existing schemes; furthermore, it is highly scalable and retains good performance under a large range of scenarios. Finally, we use our theoretical framework proposed in our 2004 paper to analyze the performance of spray routing. We also use this theory to show how to choose the number of copies to be sprayed and how to optimally distribute these copies to relays.
Characterizing the capacity region in multiradio multichannel wireless mesh networks
 in ACM MobiCom
, 2005
"... Next generation fixed wireless broadband networks are being increasingly deployed as mesh networks in order to provide and extend access to the internet. These networks are characterized by the use of multiple orthogonal channels and nodes with the ability to simultaneously communicate with many nei ..."
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Cited by 146 (0 self)
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Next generation fixed wireless broadband networks are being increasingly deployed as mesh networks in order to provide and extend access to the internet. These networks are characterized by the use of multiple orthogonal channels and nodes with the ability to simultaneously communicate with many neighbors using multiple radios (interfaces) over orthogonal channels. Networks based on the IEEE 802.11a/b/g and 802.16 standards are examples of these systems. However, due to the limited number of available orthogonal channels, interference is still a factor in such networks. In this paper, we propose a network model that captures the key practical aspects of such systems and characterize the constraints binding their behavior. We provide necessary conditions to verify the feasibility of rate vectors in these networks, and use them to derive upper bounds on the capacity in terms of achievable throughput, using a fast primaldual algorithm. We then develop two link channel assignment schemes, one static and the other dynamic, in order to derive lower bounds on the achievable throughput. We demonstrate through simulations that the dynamic link channel assignment scheme performs close to optimal on the average, while the static link channel assignment algorithm also performs very well. The methods proposed in this paper can be a valuable tool for network designers in planning network deployment and for optimizing different performance objectives.
Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Regime for Time Synchronization
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST WORKSHOP ON HOT TOPICS IN NETWORKS (HOTNETSI
, 2002
"... Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large populations of wirelessly connected nodes, capable of computation, communication, and sensing. Sensor nodes cooperate in order to merge individual sensor readings into a highlevel sensing result, such as integrating a time series of position measurem ..."
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Cited by 145 (9 self)
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large populations of wirelessly connected nodes, capable of computation, communication, and sensing. Sensor nodes cooperate in order to merge individual sensor readings into a highlevel sensing result, such as integrating a time series of position measurements into a velocity estimate. The physical time of sensor readings is a key element in this process called data fusion. Hence, time synchronization is a crucial component of WSNs. We argue that time synchronization schemes developed for traditional networks such as NTP [21] are illsuited for WSNs and suggest more appropriate approaches.
Impact of human mobility on opportunistic forwarding algorithms
 IEEE Trans. Mob. Comp
, 2007
"... Abstract — We study data transfer opportunities between wireless devices carried by humans. We observe that the distribution of the intercontact time (the time gap separating two contacts between the same pair of devices) may be well approximated by a power law over the range [10 minutes; 1 day]. T ..."
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Cited by 120 (19 self)
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Abstract — We study data transfer opportunities between wireless devices carried by humans. We observe that the distribution of the intercontact time (the time gap separating two contacts between the same pair of devices) may be well approximated by a power law over the range [10 minutes; 1 day]. This observation is confirmed using eight distinct experimental data sets. It is at odds with the exponential decay implied by the most commonly used mobility models. In this paper, we study how this newly uncovered characteristic of human mobility impacts one class of forwarding algorithms previously proposed. We use a simplified model based on the renewal theory to study how the parameters of the distribution impact the performance in terms of the delivery delay of these algorithms. We make recommendations for the design of well founded opportunistic forwarding algorithms, in the context of human carried devices. I.
On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks
, 2003
"... We study the throughput capacity of hybrid wireless networks. A hybrid network is formed by placing a sparse network of base stations in an ad hoc network. These base stations are assumed to be connected by a highbandwidth wired network and act as relays for wireless nodes. They are not data source ..."
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Cited by 119 (3 self)
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We study the throughput capacity of hybrid wireless networks. A hybrid network is formed by placing a sparse network of base stations in an ad hoc network. These base stations are assumed to be connected by a highbandwidth wired network and act as relays for wireless nodes. They are not data sources nor data receivers. Hybrid networks present a tradeoff between traditional cellular networks and pure ad hoc networks in that data may be forwarded in a multihop fashion or through the infrastructure. It has been shown that the capacity of a random ad hoc network does not scale well with the number of nodes in the system [1]. In this work, we consider two different routing strategies and study the scaling behavior of the throughput capacity of a hybrid network. Analytical expressions of the throughput capacity are obtained. For a hybrid network of n nodes and m base stations, the results show that if m grows asymptotically slower than # n, the benefit of adding base stations on capacity is insignificant. However, if m grows faster than # n, the throughput capacity increases linearly with the number of base stations, providing an effective improvement over a pure ad hoc network. Therefore, in order to achieve nonnegligible capacity gain, the investment in the wired infrastructure should be high enough.
Impact of Interferences on Connectivity in Ad Hoc Networks
 in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM
, 2003
"... We study the impact of interferences on the connectivity of largescale adhoc networks, using percolation theory. We assume that a bidirectional connection can be set up between two nodes if the signal to noise ratio at the receiver is larger than some threshold. The noise is the sum of the contri ..."
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Cited by 115 (13 self)
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We study the impact of interferences on the connectivity of largescale adhoc networks, using percolation theory. We assume that a bidirectional connection can be set up between two nodes if the signal to noise ratio at the receiver is larger than some threshold. The noise is the sum of the contribution of interferences from all other nodes, weighted by a coefficient gamma, and of a background noise. We find that there is a critical value of gamma above which the network is made of disconnected clusters of nodes. We also prove that if gamma is non zero but small enough, there exist node spatial densities for which the network contains a large (theoretically infinite) cluster of nodes, enabling distant nodes to communicate in multiple hops. Since small values of gamma cannot be achieved without efficient CDMA codes, we investigate the use of a very simple TDMA scheme, where nodes can emit only every nth time slot. We show qualitatively that it even achieves a better connectivity than the previous system with a parameter gamma/n.
A Deterministic Approach to Throughput Scaling in Wireless Networks
 Transactions on Information Theory
, 2004
"... Abstract—We address the problem of how throughput in a wireless network scales as the number of users grows. Following the model of Gupta and Kumar, we consider identical nodes placed in a fixed area. Pairs of transmitters and receivers wish to communicate but are subject to interference from other ..."
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Cited by 115 (3 self)
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Abstract—We address the problem of how throughput in a wireless network scales as the number of users grows. Following the model of Gupta and Kumar, we consider identical nodes placed in a fixed area. Pairs of transmitters and receivers wish to communicate but are subject to interference from other nodes. Throughput is measured in bitmeters per second. We provide a very elementary deterministic approach that gives achievability results in terms of three key properties of the node locations. As a special case, we obtain throughput for a general class of network configurations in a fixed area. Results for random node locations in a fixed area can also be derived as special cases of the general result by verifying the growth rate of three parameters. For example, as a simple corollary of our result we obtain a stronger (almost sure) version of the log throughput for random node locations in a fixed area obtained by Gupta and Kumar. Results for some other interesting nonindependent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) node distributions are also provided. Index Terms—Ad hoc networks, capacity, deterministic, individual sequence, multihop, random, scaling, throughput, wireless networks. I.