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22
Exact Indexing of Dynamic Time Warping
, 2002
"... The problem of indexing time series has attracted much research interest in the database community. Most algorithms used to index time series utilize the Euclidean distance or some variation thereof. However is has been forcefully shown that the Euclidean distance is a very brittle distance me ..."
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Cited by 242 (31 self)
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The problem of indexing time series has attracted much research interest in the database community. Most algorithms used to index time series utilize the Euclidean distance or some variation thereof. However is has been forcefully shown that the Euclidean distance is a very brittle distance measure. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is a much more robust distance measure for time series, allowing similar shapes to match even if they are out of phase in the time axis.
Locally Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction for Indexing Large Time Series Databases
 In proceedings of ACM SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data
, 2002
"... Similarity search in large time series databases has attracted much research interest recently. It is a difficult problem because of the typically high dimensionality of the data.. The most promising solutions' involve performing dimensionality reduction on the data, then indexing the reduced d ..."
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Cited by 234 (28 self)
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Similarity search in large time series databases has attracted much research interest recently. It is a difficult problem because of the typically high dimensionality of the data.. The most promising solutions' involve performing dimensionality reduction on the data, then indexing the reduced data with a multidimensional index structure. Many dimensionality reduction techniques have been proposed, including Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In this work we introduce a new dimensionality reduction technique which we call Adaptive Piecewise Constant Approximation (APCA). While previous techniques (e.g., SVD, DFT and DWT) choose a common representation for all the items in the database that minimizes the global reconstruction error, APCA approximates each time series by a set of constant value segments' of varying lengths' such that their individual reconstruction errors' are minimal. We show how APCA can be indexed using a multidimensional index structure. We propose two distance measures in the indexed space that exploit the high fidelity of APCA for fast searching: a lower bounding Euclidean distance approximation, and a nonlower bounding, but very tight Euclidean distance approximation and show how they can support fast exact searchin& and even faster approximate searching on the same index structure. We theoretically and empirically compare APCA to all the other techniques and demonstrate its' superiority.
On the Need for Time Series Data Mining Benchmarks: A Survey and Empirical Demonstration
 SIGKDD'02
, 2002
"... ... mining time series data. Literally hundreds of papers have introduced new algorithms to index, classify, cluster and segment time series. In this work we make the following claim. Much of this work has very little utility because the contribution made (speed in the case of indexing, accuracy in ..."
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Cited by 227 (51 self)
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... mining time series data. Literally hundreds of papers have introduced new algorithms to index, classify, cluster and segment time series. In this work we make the following claim. Much of this work has very little utility because the contribution made (speed in the case of indexing, accuracy in the case of classification and clustering, model accuracy in the case of segmentation) offer an amount of "improvement" that would have been completely dwarfed by the variance that would have been observed by testing on many real world datasets, or the variance that would have been observed by changing minor (unstated) implementation details. To illustrate our point
Dimensionality Reduction for Fast Similarity Search in Large Time Series Databases
, 2000
"... The problem of similarity search in large time series databases has attracted much attention recently. It is a nontrivial problem because of the inherent high dimensionality of the data. The most promising solutions involve first performing dimensionality reduction on the data, and then indexing th ..."
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Cited by 160 (17 self)
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The problem of similarity search in large time series databases has attracted much attention recently. It is a nontrivial problem because of the inherent high dimensionality of the data. The most promising solutions involve first performing dimensionality reduction on the data, and then indexing the reduced data with a spatial access method. Three major dimensionality reduction techniques have been proposed, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and more recently the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In this work we introduce a new dimensionality reduction technique which we call Piecewise Aggregate Approximation (PAA). We theoretically and empirically compare it to the other techniques and demonstrate its superiority. In addition to being competitive with or faster than the other methods, our approach has numerous other advantages. It is simple to understand and to implement, it allows more flexible distance measures, including weighted Euclidean queries, and the index can be built in linear time.
Making Timeseries Classification More Accurate Using Learned Constraints
 In proc. of SDM Intâ€™l Conf
, 2004
"... It has long been known that Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is superior to Euclidean distance for classification and clustering of time series. However, until lately, most research has utilized Euclidean distance because it is more efficiently calculated. A recently introduced technique that greatly miti ..."
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Cited by 60 (18 self)
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It has long been known that Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is superior to Euclidean distance for classification and clustering of time series. However, until lately, most research has utilized Euclidean distance because it is more efficiently calculated. A recently introduced technique that greatly mitigates DTWs demanding CPU time has sparked a flurry of research activity. However, the technique and its many extensions still only allow DTW to be applied to moderately large datasets. In addition, almost all of the research on DTW has focused exclusively on speeding up its calculation; there has been little work done on improving its accuracy. In this work, we target the accuracy aspect of DTW performance and introduce a new framework that learns arbitrary constraints on the warping path of the DTW calculation. Apart from improving the accuracy of classification, our technique as a side effect speeds up DTW by a wide margin as well. We show the utility of our approach on datasets from diverse domains and demonstrate significant gains in accuracy and efficiency.
Scaling up Dynamic Time Warping for Datamining Applications
 In Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2000
"... There has been much recent interest in adapting data mining algorithms to time series databases. Most of these algorithms need to compare time series. Typically some variation of Euclidean distance is used. However, as we demonstrate in this paper, Euclidean distance can be an extremely brittle dist ..."
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Cited by 56 (3 self)
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There has been much recent interest in adapting data mining algorithms to time series databases. Most of these algorithms need to compare time series. Typically some variation of Euclidean distance is used. However, as we demonstrate in this paper, Euclidean distance can be an extremely brittle distance measure. Dynamic time warping (DTW) has been suggested as a technique to allow more robust distance calculations, however it is computationally expensive. In this paper we introduce a modification of DTW which operates on a higher level abstraction of the data, in particular, a Piecewise Aggregate Approximation (PAA). Our approach allows us to outperform DTW by one to two orders of magnitude, with no loss of accuracy.
Scaling up Dynamic Time Warping to Massive Datasets
, 1999
"... There has been much recent interest in adapting data mining algorithms to time series databases. Many of these algorithms need to compare time series. Typically some variation or extension of Euclidean distance is used. However, as we demonstrate in this paper, Euclidean distance can be an extre ..."
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Cited by 53 (1 self)
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There has been much recent interest in adapting data mining algorithms to time series databases. Many of these algorithms need to compare time series. Typically some variation or extension of Euclidean distance is used. However, as we demonstrate in this paper, Euclidean distance can be an extremely brittle distance measure. Dynamic time warping (DTW) has been suggested as a technique to allow more robust distance calculations, however it is computationally expensive. In this paper we introduce a modification of DTW which operates on a higher level abstraction of the data, in particular, a piecewise linear representation. We demonstrate that our approach allows us to outperform DTW by one to three orders of magnitude. We experimentally evaluate our approach on medical, astronomical and sign language data.
A Simple Dimensionality Reduction Technique for Fast Similarity Search in Large Time Series Databases
 IN 4TH PACIFICASIA CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY AND DATA MINING, PAKDD
, 2000
"... We address the problem of similarity search in large time series databases. We introduce ..."
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Cited by 46 (4 self)
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We address the problem of similarity search in large time series databases. We introduce
Iterative deepening dynamic time warping for time series
 In Proc 2 nd SIAM International Conference on Data Mining
, 2002
"... Time series are a ubiquitous form of data occurring in virtually every scientific discipline and business application. There has been much recent work on adapting data mining algorithms to time series databases. For example, Das et al. attempt to show how association rules can be learned from time s ..."
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Cited by 30 (8 self)
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Time series are a ubiquitous form of data occurring in virtually every scientific discipline and business application. There has been much recent work on adapting data mining algorithms to time series databases. For example, Das et al. attempt to show how association rules can be learned from time series [7]. Debregeas and Hebrail [8]
A WaveletBased Anytime Algorithm for KMeans Clustering of Time Series
 In Proc. Workshop on Clustering High Dimensionality Data and Its Applications
, 2003
"... The emergence of the field of data mining in the last decade has sparked an increasing interest in clustering of tiate series. Although there has been much research on clustering in general, most classic machine learning and data mining algorithms do not work well for time series due to their unique ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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The emergence of the field of data mining in the last decade has sparked an increasing interest in clustering of tiate series. Although there has been much research on clustering in general, most classic machine learning and data mining algorithms do not work well for time series due to their unique structure. In particular, the high dimensionaliF, very high feature correlation, and the (typically) large amount of noise that characterize time series data present a difficult challenge. In this work we address these challenges by introducing a novel anytiate version of kMeans clustering algorithm for time series. The algorithm works by leveraging off the multiresolution property of wavelets. In particular, an initial clustering is perforated with a very coarse resolution representation of the data. The results obtained from this "quick and dirty" clustering are used to initialize a clustering at a slightly finer level of approximation. This process is repeated until the clustering results stabilize or until the "approxiatation" is the raw data. In addition to casting kMeans as an anytime algorithm, our approach has two other very unintuitive properties. The quality of the clustering is often better than the batch algorithm, and even if the algorithm is run to coatpletion, the time taken is typically much less than the time taken by the original algorithm. We explain, and eatpirically demonstrate these surprising and desirable properties with coatprehensive experiatents on several publicly available real data sets.