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Bisimulation for Labelled Markov Processes
 Information and Computation
, 1997
"... In this paper we introduce a new class of labelled transition systems  Labelled Markov Processes  and define bisimulation for them. ..."
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Cited by 139 (23 self)
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In this paper we introduce a new class of labelled transition systems  Labelled Markov Processes  and define bisimulation for them.
Probabilistic Extensions of Process Algebras
 Handbook of Process Algebra
, 2001
"... INTRODUCTION Classic process, algebras such as CCS, CSP and ACP, are wellestablished techniques for modelling and reasoning about functional aspects of concurrent processes. The motivation for studying probabilistic extensions of process algebras is to develop techniques dealing with nonfunctiona ..."
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Cited by 67 (5 self)
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INTRODUCTION Classic process, algebras such as CCS, CSP and ACP, are wellestablished techniques for modelling and reasoning about functional aspects of concurrent processes. The motivation for studying probabilistic extensions of process algebras is to develop techniques dealing with nonfunctional aspects of process behavior, such as performance and reliability. We may want to investigate, e.g., the average response time of a system, or the ? This chapter is dedicated to the fond memory of Linda Christoff. probability that a certain failure occurs. An analysis of these and similar properties requires that some form of information about the stochastic distribution over the occurrence of relevant events is put into the model. For instance, performance evaluation is often based on modeling a system as a continuoustime Markov process, in which distributions over delays between actions and over the choice between different actions are specified. Similar
Composition and Behaviors of Probabilistic I/O Automata
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... We augment the I/O automaton model of Lynch and Tuttle with probability, as a step toward the ultimate goal of obtaining a useful tool for specifying and reasoning about asynchronous probabilistic systems. Our new model, called probabilistic I/O automata, preserves the fundamental properties of the ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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We augment the I/O automaton model of Lynch and Tuttle with probability, as a step toward the ultimate goal of obtaining a useful tool for specifying and reasoning about asynchronous probabilistic systems. Our new model, called probabilistic I/O automata, preserves the fundamental properties of the I/O automaton model, such as the asymmetric treatment of input and output and the pleasant notion of asynchronous composition. For certain classes of probabilistic I/O automata, we show that probabilistic behavior maps, which are an abstract representation of I/O automaton behavior in terms of a certain expectation operator, are compositional and fully abstract with respect to a natural notion of probabilistic testing. 1 Introduction I/O Automata are a kind of state machine that have been proposed by Lynch and Tuttle [LT87] as a tool for specifying and reasoning about asynchronous systems. The distinguishing features of the I/O automaton model are: (1) an asymmetric treatment of input and o...
Probabilistic Automata: System Types, Parallel Composition and Comparison
 In Validation of Stochastic Systems: A Guide to Current Research
, 2004
"... We survey various notions of probabilistic automata and probabilistic bisimulation, accumulating in an expressiveness hierarchy of probabilistic system types. The aim of this paper is twofold: On the one hand it provides an overview of existing types of probabilistic systems and, on the other ha ..."
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Cited by 27 (5 self)
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We survey various notions of probabilistic automata and probabilistic bisimulation, accumulating in an expressiveness hierarchy of probabilistic system types. The aim of this paper is twofold: On the one hand it provides an overview of existing types of probabilistic systems and, on the other hand, it explains the relationship between these models.
Acceptance Trees for Probabilistic Processes
 In CONCUR'95, LNCS 962
, 1995
"... . In this paper we study the extension of classical testing theory to a probabilistic process algebra. We consider a generative interpretation of probabilities for a language with two choice operators (one internal and the other external), which are annotated with a probability p 2 (0; 1). We defin ..."
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Cited by 19 (8 self)
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. In this paper we study the extension of classical testing theory to a probabilistic process algebra. We consider a generative interpretation of probabilities for a language with two choice operators (one internal and the other external), which are annotated with a probability p 2 (0; 1). We define a testing semantics for our language, and we write P passp T to denote that the process P passes the test T with a probability p. We also give a set of essential tests which has the same strength as the full family of tests. Next we give an alternative characterization of the testing semantics, based on the idea of acceptance sets, and we prove that the new equivalence is equal to the testing equivalence. Finally, we present a fully abstract denotational semantics based on acceptance trees. 1 Introduction During the last years there has been a great activity devoted to the study of time and probabilistic extensions of concurrent processes. These extensions are very adequate for the spe...
Probabilistic metric semantics for a simple language with recursion
 Proc. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS), volume 1113 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1996
"... Abstract. We consider a simple divergencefree language RP for reactive processes which includes prefixing, deterministic choice, actionguarded probabilistic choice, synchronous parallel and recursion. We show that the probabilistic bisimulation of Larsen & Skou is a congruence for this language. Fo ..."
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Cited by 18 (6 self)
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Abstract. We consider a simple divergencefree language RP for reactive processes which includes prefixing, deterministic choice, actionguarded probabilistic choice, synchronous parallel and recursion. We show that the probabilistic bisimulation of Larsen & Skou is a congruence for this language. Following the methodology introduced by de Bakker & Zucker we give denotational semantics to this language by means of a complete metric space of (deterministic) probabilistic trees defined in terms of the powerdomain of closed sets. This new metric, although not an ultrametric, nevertheless specialises to the metric of de Bakker & Zucker. Our semantic domain admits a full abstraction result with respect to probabilistic bisimulation. 1
Modeling Systems by Probabilistic Process Algebra: An Event Structures Approach
, 1993
"... This paper treats a probabilistic version of (a subset of) the process algebra LOTOS. It incorporates a probabilistic choice assigning a probability of occurrence to each of its alternatives. Opposed to the traditional interleaving semantics used for existing probabilistic process algebras the prese ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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This paper treats a probabilistic version of (a subset of) the process algebra LOTOS. It incorporates a probabilistic choice assigning a probability of occurrence to each of its alternatives. Opposed to the traditional interleaving semantics used for existing probabilistic process algebras the presented language is based on a true concurrency semantics. This enables us to distinguish between nondeterminism and parallelism, to reduce the state explosion problem and, moreover, to analyse part of the system without considering other (irrelevant) parts. In this paper the language is presented and the formal semantics is defined by using an extension of bundle event structures. A short example illustrates the novelties of the language and links the language to stochastic analysis based on semiMarkov chains.
Characterising testing preorders for finite probabilistic processes
 In LICSâ€™07: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA
"... In 1992 Wang & Larsen extended the may and must preorders of De Nicola and Hennessy to processes featuring probabilistic as well as nondeterministic choice. They concluded with two problems that have remained open throughout the years, namely to find complete axiomatisations and alternative charact ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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In 1992 Wang & Larsen extended the may and must preorders of De Nicola and Hennessy to processes featuring probabilistic as well as nondeterministic choice. They concluded with two problems that have remained open throughout the years, namely to find complete axiomatisations and alternative characterisations for these preorders. This paper solves both problems for finite processes with silent moves. It characterises the may preorder in terms of simulation, and the must preorder in terms of failure simulation. It also gives a characterisation of both preorders using a modal logic. Finally it axiomatises both preorders over a probabilistic version of CSP. 1.
Metric semantics for reactive probabilistic processes
, 1997
"... In this thesis we present three mathematical frameworks for the modelling of reactive probabilistic communicating processes. We first introduce generalised labelled transition systems as a model of such processes and introduce an equivalence, coarser than probabilistic bisimulation, over these syst ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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In this thesis we present three mathematical frameworks for the modelling of reactive probabilistic communicating processes. We first introduce generalised labelled transition systems as a model of such processes and introduce an equivalence, coarser than probabilistic bisimulation, over these systems. Two processes are identified with respect to this equivalence if, for all experiments, the probabilities of the respective processes passing a given experiment are equal. We next consider a probabilistic process calculus including external choice, internal choice, actionguarded probabilistic choice, synchronous parallel and recursion. We give operational semantics for this calculus be means of our generalised labelled transition systems and show that our equivalence is a congruence for this language. Following the methodology introduced by de Bakker & Zucker, we then give denotational semantics to the calculus by means of a complete metric space of probabilistic processes. The derived metric, although not an ultrametric, satisfies the intuitive property that the distance between two processes tends to 0 if a measure of the dif
A testing scenario for probabilistic processes
, 2006
"... We introduce a notion of finite testing, based on statistical hypothesis tests, via a variant of the wellknown trace machine. Under this scenario, two processes are deemed observationally equivalent if they cannot be distinguished by any finite test. We consider processes modeled as image finite pr ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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We introduce a notion of finite testing, based on statistical hypothesis tests, via a variant of the wellknown trace machine. Under this scenario, two processes are deemed observationally equivalent if they cannot be distinguished by any finite test. We consider processes modeled as image finite probabilistic automata and prove that our notion of observational equivalence coincides with the trace distribution equivalence proposed by Segala. Along the way, we give an explicit characterization of the set of probabilistic generalize the Approximation Induction Principle by defining an also prove limit and convex closure properties of trace distributions in an appropriate metric space. Categories and Subject Descriptors: F.1.1 [Computation by abstract devices]: Models of Computationâ€”Automata; F.1.2 [Computation by abstract devices]: Modes of Computationâ€”Probabilistic Computation; F.4.3 [Mathematical logic and formal languages]: Formal