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A Survey of ContinuousTime Computation Theory
 Advances in Algorithms, Languages, and Complexity
, 1997
"... Motivated partly by the resurgence of neural computation research, and partly by advances in device technology, there has been a recent increase of interest in analog, continuoustime computation. However, while specialcase algorithms and devices are being developed, relatively little work exists o ..."
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Cited by 29 (6 self)
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Motivated partly by the resurgence of neural computation research, and partly by advances in device technology, there has been a recent increase of interest in analog, continuoustime computation. However, while specialcase algorithms and devices are being developed, relatively little work exists on the general theory of continuoustime models of computation. In this paper, we survey the existing models and results in this area, and point to some of the open research questions. 1 Introduction After a long period of oblivion, interest in analog computation is again on the rise. The immediate cause for this new wave of activity is surely the success of the neural networks "revolution", which has provided hardware designers with several new numerically based, computationally interesting models that are structurally sufficiently simple to be implemented directly in silicon. (For designs and actual implementations of neural models in VLSI, see e.g. [30, 45]). However, the more fundamental...
Multifield Visualization Using Local Statistical Complexity
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS
, 2007
"... Modern unsteady (multi)field visualizations require an effective reduction of the data to be displayed. From a huge amount of information the most informative parts have to be extracted. Instead of the fuzzy application dependent notion of feature, a new approach based on information theoretic conc ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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Modern unsteady (multi)field visualizations require an effective reduction of the data to be displayed. From a huge amount of information the most informative parts have to be extracted. Instead of the fuzzy application dependent notion of feature, a new approach based on information theoretic concepts is introduced in this paper to detect important regions. This is accomplished by extending the concept of local statistical complexity from finite state cellular automata to discretized (multi)fields. Thus, informative parts of the data can be highlighted in an applicationindependent, purely mathematical sense. The new measure can be applied to unsteady multifields on regular grids in any application domain. The ability to detect and visualize important parts is demonstrated using diffusion, flow, and weather simulations.
Dynamics, computation, and the “edge of chaos”: A reexamination
 Complexity:Metaphors, Models, and Reality
, 1994
"... In this paper we review previous work and present new work concerning the relationship between dynamical systems theory and computation. In particular, we review work by Langton [21] and Packard [29] on the relationship between dynamical behavior and computational capability in cellular automata (CA ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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In this paper we review previous work and present new work concerning the relationship between dynamical systems theory and computation. In particular, we review work by Langton [21] and Packard [29] on the relationship between dynamical behavior and computational capability in cellular automata (CAs). We present results from an experiment similar to the one described by Packard [29], which was cited as evidence for the hypothesis that rules capable of performing complex computations are most likely to be found at a phase transition between ordered and chaotic behavioral regimes for CAs (the “edge of chaos”). Our experiment produced very different results from the original experiment, and we suggest that the interpretation of the original results is not correct. We conclude by discussing general issues related to dynamics, computation, and the “edge of chaos ” in cellular automata. 1
Analog Computation with Dynamical Systems
 Physica D
, 1997
"... This paper presents a theory that enables to interpret natural processes as special purpose analog computers. Since physical systems are naturally described in continuous time, a definition of computational complexity for continuous time systems is required. In analogy with the classical discrete th ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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This paper presents a theory that enables to interpret natural processes as special purpose analog computers. Since physical systems are naturally described in continuous time, a definition of computational complexity for continuous time systems is required. In analogy with the classical discrete theory we develop fundamentals of computational complexity for dynamical systems, discrete or continuous in time, on the basis of an intrinsic time scale of the system. Dissipative dynamical systems are classified into the computational complexity classes P d , CoRP d , NP d
A Survey on Cellular Automata
, 2003
"... A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have exploited the CA paradigm of local information, decentralized contr ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have exploited the CA paradigm of local information, decentralized control and universal computation for modeling different applications. This article provides a survey of available literature of some of the methodologies employed by researchers to utilize cellular automata for modeling purposes. The survey introduces the different types of cellular automata being used for modeling and the analytical methods used to predict its global behavior from its local configurations. It further gives a detailed sketch of the efforts undertaken to configure the local settings of CA from a given global situation; the problem which has been traditionally termed as the inverse problem. Finally, it presents the different fields in which CA have been applied. The extensive bibliography provided with the article will be of help to the new entrant as well as researchers working in this field.
Towards Autonomic Computing: AgentBased Modelling, Dynamical Systems Analysis, and Decentralised Control
 In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Autonomic Computing Principles and Architectures
, 2003
"... Autonomic computing aims to deal with the complexity of todays systems by letting the system handle the complexity autonomously. This is a very hard and challenging domain because current systems are complex, distributed, interconnected and rapidly changing systems. We firmly belief that a main chal ..."
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Cited by 16 (3 self)
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Autonomic computing aims to deal with the complexity of todays systems by letting the system handle the complexity autonomously. This is a very hard and challenging domain because current systems are complex, distributed, interconnected and rapidly changing systems. We firmly belief that a main challenge in conquering autonomic systems is the integration of three existing research communities: the multiagent systems community allows natural modelling of the system and explicitly considers autonomous behaviour and distributed interaction, dynamical systems theory allows analysis of the dynamics of these models and the decentralised control community can use insights gathered from the analysis to create decentralised control mechanisms to control the dynamics of autonomic systems. This paper describes this generic perspective on autonomic computing, gives an overview of the relevant work done in each community and describes the contribution of each community in conquering autonomic computing.
EVOLVING MORPHOGENETIC FIELDS IN THE ZEBRA SKIN PATTERN BASED ON TURING’S MORPHOGEN HYPOTHESIS
"... One of the classical problems of morphogenesis is to explain how patterns of different animals evolved resulting in a consolidated and stable pattern generation after generation. In this paper we simulated the evolution of two hypothetical morphogens, or proteins, that diffuse across a grid modeling ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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One of the classical problems of morphogenesis is to explain how patterns of different animals evolved resulting in a consolidated and stable pattern generation after generation. In this paper we simulated the evolution of two hypothetical morphogens, or proteins, that diffuse across a grid modeling the zebra skin pattern in an embryonic state, composed of pigmented and nonpigmented cells. The simulation experiments were carried out applying a genetic algorithm to the Young cellular automaton: a discrete version of the reactiondiffusion equations proposed by Turing in 1952. In the simulation experiments we searched for proper parameter values of two hypothetical proteins playing the role of activator and inhibitor morphogens. Our results show that on molecular and cellular levels recombination is the genetic mechanism that plays the key role in morphogen evolution, obtaining similar results in the presence or absence of mutation. However, spot patterns appear more often than stripe patterns on the simulated skin of zebras. Even when simulation results are consistent with the general picture of pattern modeling and simulation based on the Turing reactiondiffusion, we conclude that the stripe pattern of zebras may be a result of other biological features (i.e., genetic interactions, the Kipling hypothesis) not included in the present model.
ContinuousTime Symmetric Hopfield Nets Are Computationally Universal
"... We establish a fundamental result in the theory of computation by continuoustime dynamical systems, by showing that systems corresponding to so called continuoustime symmetric Hopfield nets are capable of general computation. As is well known, such networks have very constrained, Liapunovfunction ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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We establish a fundamental result in the theory of computation by continuoustime dynamical systems, by showing that systems corresponding to so called continuoustime symmetric Hopfield nets are capable of general computation. As is well known, such networks have very constrained, Liapunovfunction controlled dynamics. Nevertheless, we show that they are universal and efficient computational devices, in the sense that any convergent synchronous fully parallel computation by a recurrent network of n discretetime binary neurons, with in general asymmetric coupling weights, can be simulated by a symmetric continuoustime Hopfield net containing only 18n+7 units employing the saturatedlinear activation function. Moreover, if the asymmetric network has maximum integer weight size w_max and converges in discrete time t*, then the corresponding Hopfield net can be designed to operate in continuous time Θ(t*/ε), for any ε > 0...
A Computationally Universal Field Computer That is Purely Linear
, 1997
"... As defined in MacLennan (1987), a field computer is a (spatial) continuumlimit neural net. This paper investigates field computers whose temporal dynamics is also continuumlimit, being governed by an integrodifferential equation. Such systems are motivated both as a means of studying neural nets ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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As defined in MacLennan (1987), a field computer is a (spatial) continuumlimit neural net. This paper investigates field computers whose temporal dynamics is also continuumlimit, being governed by an integrodifferential equation. Such systems are motivated both as a means of studying neural nets and as a model for cognitive processing. As this paper proves, even when they are purely linear. such systems are computationally universal. The "trick" used to get such universal nonlinear behavior from a purely linear system is quite similar to the way nonlinear macroscopic physics arises from the purely linear microscopic physics of Schrödinger's equation. More precisely, the "trick" involves interpreting the system in a nonlinear way. That is, the meaning of the system's output is determined by which neurons have an activation exceeding a threshold (which in this paper is taken to be 0), rather than by the actual activation values of the neurons. (This
Computing with ContinuousTime Liapunov Systems
"... We establish a fundamental result in the theory of computation by continuoustime dynamical systems, by showing that systems corresponding to so called continuoustime symmetric Hopfield nets are capable of general computation. More precisely, we prove that any function computed by a discretetime a ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We establish a fundamental result in the theory of computation by continuoustime dynamical systems, by showing that systems corresponding to so called continuoustime symmetric Hopfield nets are capable of general computation. More precisely, we prove that any function computed by a discretetime asymmetric recurrent network of n threshold gates can also be computed by a continuoustime symmetricallycoupled Hopfield system of dimension 18n + 7. Moreover, if the threshold logic network has maximum weight wmax and converges in discrete time t , then the corresponding Hopfield system can be designed to operate in continuous time (t ="), for any value 0 < " < 0:0025 such that wmax2 3n "2 1=" . The result appears at rst sight counterintuitive, because the dynamics of any symmetric Hopfield system is constrained by a Liapunov, or energy function defined on its state space. In particular, such a system always converges from any initial state towards some stable equilibrium state, and hence cannot exhibit nondamping oscillations, i.e. strictly speaking cannot simulate even a single alternating bit. However, we show that if one only considers terminating computations, then the Liapunov constraint can be overcome, and one can in fact embed arbitrarily complicated computations in the dynamics of Liapunov systems with only a modest cost in the system's dimensionality. In terms of standard discrete computation models, our result implies that any polynomially spacebounded Turing machine can be simulated by a family of polynomialsize continuoustime symmetric Hopfield nets.