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134
Robust Monte Carlo Localization for Mobile Robots
, 2001
"... Mobile robot localization is the problem of determining a robot's pose from sensor data. This article presents a family of probabilistic localization algorithms known as Monte Carlo Localization (MCL). MCL algorithms represent a robot's belief by a set of weighted hypotheses (samples), which approxi ..."
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Cited by 608 (83 self)
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Mobile robot localization is the problem of determining a robot's pose from sensor data. This article presents a family of probabilistic localization algorithms known as Monte Carlo Localization (MCL). MCL algorithms represent a robot's belief by a set of weighted hypotheses (samples), which approximate the posterior under a common Bayesian formulation of the localization problem. Building on the basic MCL algorithm, this article develops a more robust algorithm called MixtureMCL, which integrates two complimentary ways of generating samples in the estimation. To apply this algorithm to mobile robots equipped with range finders, a kernel density tree is learned that permits fast sampling. Systematic empirical results illustrate the robustness and computational efficiency of the approach.
Monte Carlo Localization: Efficient Position Estimation for Mobile Robots
 IN PROC. OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AAAI
, 1999
"... This paper presents a new algorithm for mobile robot localization, called Monte Carlo Localization (MCL). MCL is a version of Markov localization, a family of probabilistic approaches that have recently been applied with great practical success. However, previous approaches were either computational ..."
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Cited by 277 (51 self)
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This paper presents a new algorithm for mobile robot localization, called Monte Carlo Localization (MCL). MCL is a version of Markov localization, a family of probabilistic approaches that have recently been applied with great practical success. However, previous approaches were either computationally cumbersome (such as gridbased approaches that represent the state space by highresolution 3D grids), or had to resort to extremely coarsegrained resolutions. Our approach is computationally efficient while retaining the ability to represent (almost) arbitrary distributions. MCL applies samplingbased methods for approximating probability distributions, in a way that places computation " where needed." The number of samples is adapted online, thereby invoking large sample sets only when necessary. Empirical results illustrate that MCL yields improved accuracy while requiring an order of magnitude less computation when compared to previous approaches. It is also much easier to implement...
A realtime algorithm for mobile robot mapping with applications to multirobot and 3D mapping
 In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, 2000
"... We present an incremental method for concurrent mapping and localization for mobile robots equipped with 2D laser range finders. The approach uses a fast implementation of scanmatching for mapping, paired with a samplebased probabilistic method for localization. Compact 3D maps are generated using ..."
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Cited by 255 (37 self)
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We present an incremental method for concurrent mapping and localization for mobile robots equipped with 2D laser range finders. The approach uses a fast implementation of scanmatching for mapping, paired with a samplebased probabilistic method for localization. Compact 3D maps are generated using a multiresolution approach adopted from the computer graphics literature, fed by data from a dual laser system. Our approach builds 3D maps of large, cyclic environments in realtime. It is remarkably robust. Experimental results illustrate that accurate maps of large, cyclic environments can be generated even in the absence of any odometric data. 1
An Online Mapping Algorithm for Teams of Mobile Robots
 International Journal of Robotics Research
, 2001
"... We propose a new probabilistic algorithm for online mapping of unknown environments with teams of robots. At the core of the algorithm is a technique that combines fast maximum likelihood map growing with a Monte Carlo localizer that uses particle representations. The combination of both yields an o ..."
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Cited by 190 (14 self)
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We propose a new probabilistic algorithm for online mapping of unknown environments with teams of robots. At the core of the algorithm is a technique that combines fast maximum likelihood map growing with a Monte Carlo localizer that uses particle representations. The combination of both yields an online algorithm that can cope with large odometric errors typically found when mapping an environment with cycles. The algorithm can be implemented distributedly on multiple robot platforms, enabling a team of robots to cooperatively generate a single map of their environment. Finally, an extension is described for acquiring threedimensional maps, which capture the structure and visual appearance of indoor environments in 3D.
A Probabilistic Approach to Collaborative MultiRobot Localization
, 2000
"... This paper presents a statistical algorithm for collaborative mobile robot localization. Our approach uses a samplebased version of Markov localization, capable of localizing mobile robots in an anytime fashion. When teams of robots localize themselves in the same environment, probabilistic method ..."
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Cited by 178 (18 self)
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This paper presents a statistical algorithm for collaborative mobile robot localization. Our approach uses a samplebased version of Markov localization, capable of localizing mobile robots in an anytime fashion. When teams of robots localize themselves in the same environment, probabilistic methods are employed to synchronize each robot's belief whenever one robot detects another. As a result, the robots localize themselves faster, maintain higher accuracy, and highcost sensors are amortized across multiple robot platforms. The technique has been implemented and tested using two mobile robots equipped with cameras and laser rangefinders for detecting other robots. The results, obtained with the real robots and in series of simulation runs, illustrate drastic improvements in localization speed and accuracy when compared to conventional singlerobot localization. A further experiment demonstrates that under certain conditions, successful localization is only possible if teams of heterogeneous robots collaborate during localization.
A Guide to the Literature on Learning Probabilistic Networks From Data
, 1996
"... This literature review discusses different methods under the general rubric of learning Bayesian networks from data, and includes some overlapping work on more general probabilistic networks. Connections are drawn between the statistical, neural network, and uncertainty communities, and between the ..."
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Cited by 172 (0 self)
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This literature review discusses different methods under the general rubric of learning Bayesian networks from data, and includes some overlapping work on more general probabilistic networks. Connections are drawn between the statistical, neural network, and uncertainty communities, and between the different methodological communities, such as Bayesian, description length, and classical statistics. Basic concepts for learning and Bayesian networks are introduced and methods are then reviewed. Methods are discussed for learning parameters of a probabilistic network, for learning the structure, and for learning hidden variables. The presentation avoids formal definitions and theorems, as these are plentiful in the literature, and instead illustrates key concepts with simplified examples. Keywords Bayesian networks, graphical models, hidden variables, learning, learning structure, probabilistic networks, knowledge discovery. I. Introduction Probabilistic networks or probabilistic gra...
Particle Filters for Mobile Robot Localization
, 2001
"... This article describes a family of methods, known as Monte Carlo localization (MCL) (Dellaert at al. 1999b, Fox et al. 1999b). The MCL algorithm is a particle filter combined with probabilistic models of robot perception and motion. Building on this, we will describe a variation of MCL which uses a ..."
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Cited by 94 (18 self)
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This article describes a family of methods, known as Monte Carlo localization (MCL) (Dellaert at al. 1999b, Fox et al. 1999b). The MCL algorithm is a particle filter combined with probabilistic models of robot perception and motion. Building on this, we will describe a variation of MCL which uses a different proposal distribution (a mixture distribution) that facilitates fast recovery from global localization failures. As we will see, this proposal distribution has a range of advantages over that used in standard MCL, but it comes at the price that it is more difficult to implement, and it requires an algorithm for sampling poses from sensor measurements, which might be difficult to obtain. Finally, we will present an extension of MCL to cooperative multirobot localization of robots that can perceive each other during localization. All these approaches have been tested thoroughly in practice. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate their relative strengths and weaknesses in practical robot applications.
Structure from motion without correspondence
 In IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR
, 2000
"... A method is presented to recover 3D scene structure and camera motion from multiple images without the need for correspondence information. The problem is framed as finding the maximum likelihood structure and motion given only the 2D measurements, integrating over all possible assignments of 3D fea ..."
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Cited by 84 (5 self)
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A method is presented to recover 3D scene structure and camera motion from multiple images without the need for correspondence information. The problem is framed as finding the maximum likelihood structure and motion given only the 2D measurements, integrating over all possible assignments of 3D features to 2D measurements. This goal is achieved by means of an algorithm which iteratively refines a probability distribution over the set of all correspondence assignments. At each iteration a new structure from motion problem is solved, using as input a set of ’virtual measurements’ derived from this probability distribution. The distribution needed can be efficiently obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. The approach is cast within the framework of ExpectationMaximization, which guarantees convergence to a local maximizer of the likelihood. The algorithm works well in practice, as will be demonstrated using results on several real image sequences. 1
Nonlinear Gated Experts for Time Series: Discovering Regimes and Avoiding Overfitting
, 1995
"... this paper: ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/TimeSeries/MyPapers/experts.ps.Z, ..."
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Cited by 81 (5 self)
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this paper: ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/TimeSeries/MyPapers/experts.ps.Z,
Information theoretic sensor data selection for active object recognition and state estimation
 in IEEE Transactions on PAMI
, 2002
"... Abstract—We introduce a formalism for optimal sensor parameter selection for iterative state estimation in static systems. Our optimality criterion is the reduction of uncertainty in the state estimation process, rather than an estimatorspecific metric (e.g., minimum mean squared estimate error). T ..."
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Cited by 78 (8 self)
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Abstract—We introduce a formalism for optimal sensor parameter selection for iterative state estimation in static systems. Our optimality criterion is the reduction of uncertainty in the state estimation process, rather than an estimatorspecific metric (e.g., minimum mean squared estimate error). The claim is that state estimation becomes more reliable if the uncertainty and ambiguity in the estimation process can be reduced. We use Shannon’s information theory to select informationgathering actions that maximize mutual information, thus optimizing the information that the data conveys about the true state of the system. The technique explicitly takes into account the a priori probabilities governing the computation of the mutual information. Thus, a sequential decision process can be formed by treating the a priori probability at a certain time step in the decision process as the a posteriori probability of the previous time step. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach in an object recognition application using an active camera for sequential gaze control and viewpoint selection. We describe experiments with discrete and continuous density representations that suggest the effectiveness of the approach. Index Terms—Computer vision, active camera control, state estimation, information theory. æ 1