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Abduction in Logic Programming
"... Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over th ..."
Abstract

Cited by 538 (74 self)
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Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over the last ten years and to take a critical view of these developments from several perspectives: logical, epistemological, computational and suitability to application. The paper attempts to expose some of the challenges and prospects for the further development of the field.
Logic Programming and Knowledge Representation
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1994
"... In this paper, we review recent work aimed at the application of declarative logic programming to knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. We consider exten sions of the language of definite logic programs by classical (strong) negation, disjunc tion, and some modal operators and sh ..."
Abstract

Cited by 224 (21 self)
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In this paper, we review recent work aimed at the application of declarative logic programming to knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. We consider exten sions of the language of definite logic programs by classical (strong) negation, disjunc tion, and some modal operators and show how each of the added features extends the representational power of the language.
Representing and reasoning about semantic conflicts in heterogeneous information systems
, 1997
"... ..."
SLDNFA: an abductive procedure for normal abductive programs
 Proc. of the International Joint Conference and Symposium on Logic Programming
, 1992
"... A family of extensions of SLDNFresolution for normal abductive programs is presented. The main difference between our approach and existing procedures is the treatment of nonground abductive goals. A completion semantics is given and the soundness and completeness of the procedures has been proven ..."
Abstract

Cited by 64 (15 self)
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A family of extensions of SLDNFresolution for normal abductive programs is presented. The main difference between our approach and existing procedures is the treatment of nonground abductive goals. A completion semantics is given and the soundness and completeness of the procedures has been proven. The research presented here, provides a simple framework of abductive procedures, in which a number of parameters can be set, in order to fit the abduction procedure to the application under consideration.
The Unified Problemsolving Method Development Language UPML
 Knowledge and Information Systems
, 1999
"... Problemsolving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledgebased systems. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 56 (11 self)
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Problemsolving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledgebased systems.
A Prologlike Inference System for Computing MinimumCost Abductive Explanations in NaturalLanguage Interpretation
, 1988
"... By determining what added assumptions would suffice to make the logical form of a sentence in natural language provable, abductive inference can be used in the interpretation of sentences to determine what information should be added to the listener's knowledge, i.e., what he should learn from the s ..."
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Cited by 47 (1 self)
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By determining what added assumptions would suffice to make the logical form of a sentence in natural language provable, abductive inference can be used in the interpretation of sentences to determine what information should be added to the listener's knowledge, i.e., what he should learn from the sentence. This is a comparatively new application of mechanized abduction. A new form of abductionleast specific abductionis proposed as being more appropriate to the task of interpreting natural language than the forms that have been used in the traditional diagnostic and designsynthesis applications of abduction. The assignment of numerical costs to axioms and assumable literals permits specification of preferences on different abductive explanations. A new Prologlike inference system that computes abductive explanations and their costs is given. To facilitate the computation of minimumcost explanations, the inference system, unlike others such as Prolog, is designed to avoid the repeated use of the same instance of an axiom or assumption.
Approaches to Abductive Reasoning  An Overview
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REVIEW
, 1993
"... Abduction is a form of nonmonotonic reasoning that has gained increasing interest in the last few years. The key idea behind it can be represented by the following inference rule
$$O = \mathop C\limits_  N = \mathop P\limits_^  O  \mathop C\limits_^  .$$
i.e., from an occurrence of ohgr an ..."
Abstract

Cited by 40 (1 self)
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Abduction is a form of nonmonotonic reasoning that has gained increasing interest in the last few years. The key idea behind it can be represented by the following inference rule
$$O = \mathop C\limits_  N = \mathop P\limits_^  O  \mathop C\limits_^  .$$
i.e., from an occurrence of ohgr and the rule ldquophiv implies ohgrrdquo, infer an occurrence of phiv as aplausible hypothesis or explanation for ohgr. Thus, in contrast to deduction, abduction is as well as induction a form of ldquodefeasiblerdquo inference, i.e., the formulae sanctioned are plausible and submitted to verification.
In this paper, a formal description of current approaches is given. The underlying reasoning process is treated independently and divided into two parts. This includes a description of methods for hypotheses generation and methods for finding the best explanations among a set of possible ones. Furthermore, the complexity of the abductive task is surveyed in connection with its relationship to default reasoning. We conclude with the presentation of applications of the discussed approaches focusing on plan recognition and plan generation.
Toward a Unified Theory of Learning: Multistrategy TaskAdaptive Learning
 IN: READINGS IN KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AND
, 1993
"... Any learning process can be viewed as a selfmodification of the leaxnefs current knowledge tArough an. interaction with some information source. Such knowledge modification is guided by the learner's deshe to achieve a certain outcome, and can engage any kind of inference. The type of inference inv ..."
Abstract

Cited by 29 (10 self)
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Any learning process can be viewed as a selfmodification of the leaxnefs current knowledge tArough an. interaction with some information source. Such knowledge modification is guided by the learner's deshe to achieve a certain outcome, and can engage any kind of inference. The type of inference involved depends on he input information, the current (background) knowledge and the learneFs task ax hand. Based on such a view of learning, several fundamental concepts are analized and clarified, in paxticular, analytic and synthetic learning, derivm:ional and hypothetical explanation, constnictive induction, abduction, abstraction and deductive generalization. It is shown that inductive generalization and abduction can be viewed as two basic forms of general induction, and that abstraction and deductive generalization axe two related forms of constructive deduction. Using this conceptual framework, a methodology for multistrategy taskadaptive learning (MTL) is outlined, in which learning strategies axe combined dynamically, depending on the current learning situation. Speccally, an MTL learner anaLizes a "wiad" relationship among the input information, the background knowledge and the learning task, and on that basis determines which strategy, or. a combination thereof, is most appropriate at a given learning step. To implement the MTL methodology, a new knowledge representation is proposed, based on the parametric association rules (PARs). Basic ideas of MTL are illustrated by means of the wellknown "cup" example, through which is shown how an MTL learner can employ, depending the above mad relationship, emprical learning, constructive inductive generalization, abduction, explanationbased learning and absuaction.
First Order Abduction Via Tableau and Sequent Calculi
 Bulletin of the IGPL
, 1993
"... The formalization of abductive reasoning is still an open question: there is no general agreement on the boundary of some basic concepts, such as preference criteria for explanations, and the extension to first order logic has not been settled. Investigating the nature of abduction outside the conte ..."
Abstract

Cited by 22 (6 self)
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The formalization of abductive reasoning is still an open question: there is no general agreement on the boundary of some basic concepts, such as preference criteria for explanations, and the extension to first order logic has not been settled. Investigating the nature of abduction outside the context of resolution based logic programming still deserves attention, in order to characterize abductive explanations without tailoring them to any fixed method of computation. In fact, resolution is surely not the best tool for facing metalogical and prooftheoretical questions. In this work the analysis of the concepts involved in abductive reasoning is based on analytical proof systems, i.e. tableaux and Gentzentype systems. A proof theoretical abduction method for first order classical logic is defined, based on the sequent calculus and a dual one, based on semantic tableaux. The methods are sound and complete and work for full first order logic, without requiring any preliminary reductio...
A Unifying View for Logic Programming with NonMonotonic Reasoning
, 1997
"... We provide a simple formulation of a framework where some extensions of logic programming with nonmonotonic reasoning are treated uniformly, namely two kinds of negation and abduction. The resulting semantics is purely modeltheoretic, and gives meaning to any noncontradictory abductive logic pr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 18 (11 self)
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We provide a simple formulation of a framework where some extensions of logic programming with nonmonotonic reasoning are treated uniformly, namely two kinds of negation and abduction. The resulting semantics is purely modeltheoretic, and gives meaning to any noncontradictory abductive logic program. Moreover, it embeds and generalizes some existing semantics which deal with negation and abduction. The framework is equipped with a correct topdown proof procedure. Keywords: Programming languages, Logic programming, Nonmonotonic reasoning, Negation, Abduction. Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Pisa, Corso Italia 40, Pisa, Italy. brogi@di.unipi.it y DEIS, Universit`a di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy. elamma@deis.unibo.it z Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Pisa, Corso Italia 40, Pisa, Italy. paolo@di.unipi.it x DEIS, Universit`a di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 41100 Ferrara, Italy. pmello@ing.unife.it Contents 1 Introduction and Motiva...