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24
A game theoretic approach to controller design for hybrid systems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... We present a method to design controllers for safety specifications in hybrid systems. The hybrid system combines discrete event dynamics with nonlinear continuous dynamics: the discrete event dynamics model linguistic and qualitative information and naturally accommodate mode switching logic, and t ..."
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Cited by 89 (29 self)
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We present a method to design controllers for safety specifications in hybrid systems. The hybrid system combines discrete event dynamics with nonlinear continuous dynamics: the discrete event dynamics model linguistic and qualitative information and naturally accommodate mode switching logic, and the continuous dynamics model the physical processes themselves, such as the continuous response of an aircraft to the forces of aileron and throttle. Input variables model both continuous and discrete control and disturbance parameters. We translate safety specifications into restrictions on the system’s reachable sets of states. Then, using analysis based on optimal control and game theory for automata and continuous dynamical systems, we derive Hamilton–Jacobi equations whose solutions describe the boundaries of reachable sets. These equations are the heart of our general controller synthesis technique for hybrid systems, in which we calculate feedback control laws for
Optimal strategies in priced timed game automata
 In FSTTCS 04, LNCS 3328
, 2004
"... Abstract. Priced timed (game) automata extend timed (game) automata with costs on both locations and transitions. In this paper we focus on reachability games for priced timed game automata and prove that the optimal cost for winning such a game is computable under conditions concerning the nonzeno ..."
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Cited by 52 (23 self)
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Abstract. Priced timed (game) automata extend timed (game) automata with costs on both locations and transitions. In this paper we focus on reachability games for priced timed game automata and prove that the optimal cost for winning such a game is computable under conditions concerning the nonzenoness of cost and we prove that it is decidable. Under stronger conditions (strictness of constraints) we prove that in case an optimal strategy exists, we can compute a statebased winning optimal strategy. 1
The Element of Surprise in Timed Games
"... We consider concurrent twoperson games played in real time, in which the players decide both which action to play, and when to play it. Such timed games differ from untimed games in two essential ways. First, players can take each other by surprise, because actions are played with delays that canno ..."
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Cited by 44 (10 self)
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We consider concurrent twoperson games played in real time, in which the players decide both which action to play, and when to play it. Such timed games differ from untimed games in two essential ways. First, players can take each other by surprise, because actions are played with delays that cannot be anticipated by the opponent. Second, a player should not be able to win the game by preventing time from diverging. We present a model of timed games that preserves the element of surprise and accounts for time divergence in a way that treats both players symmetrically and applies to all !regular winning conditions.
Symbolic Algorithms for InfiniteState Games
, 2001
"... A procedure for the analysis of state spaces is called symbolic if it manipulates not individual states, but sets of states that are represented by constraints. Such a procedure can be used for the analysis of infinite state spaces, provided termination is guaranteed. We present symbolic procedures, ..."
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Cited by 42 (6 self)
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A procedure for the analysis of state spaces is called symbolic if it manipulates not individual states, but sets of states that are represented by constraints. Such a procedure can be used for the analysis of infinite state spaces, provided termination is guaranteed. We present symbolic procedures, and corresponding termination criteria, for the solution of infinitestate games, which occur in the control and modular verification of infinitestate systems. To characterize the termination of symbolic procedures for solving infinitestate games, we classify these game structures into four increasingly restrictive categories: 1. Class 1 consists of infinitestate structures for which all safety and reachability games can be solved...
A Comparison of Control Problems for Timed and Hybrid Systems
, 2002
"... In the literature, we nd several formulations of the control problem for timed and hybrid systems. We argue that formulations where a controller can cause an action at any point in dense (rational or real) time are problematic, by presenting an example where the controller must act faster and faster ..."
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Cited by 39 (7 self)
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In the literature, we nd several formulations of the control problem for timed and hybrid systems. We argue that formulations where a controller can cause an action at any point in dense (rational or real) time are problematic, by presenting an example where the controller must act faster and faster, yet causes no Zeno eects (say, the control actions are at times 0; 1 2 ; 1; 1 3 4 ; 2; 2 7 8 ; 3; 3 15 16 ; : : :). Such a controller is, of course, not implementable in software. Such controllers are avoided by formulations where the controller can cause actions only at discrete (integer) points in time. While the resulting control problem is wellunderstood if the time unit, or \sampling rate" of the controller, is xed a priori, we dene a novel, stronger formulation: the discretetime control problem with unknown sampling rate asks if a sampling controller exists for some sampling rate. We prove that, surprisingly and unfortunately, this problem is undecidable even in the special case of timed automata. 1
OptimalReachability and Control for Acyclic Weighted Timed Automata
 Proc. 2nd IFIP International Conference on Theoretical Computer Science (TCS’02
, 2002
"... Weighted timed automata extend timed automata with costs on both locations and transitions. In this framework we study the optimal reachability and the optimal control synthesis problems for the automata with acyclic control graphs. This class of automata is relevant for some practical problems such ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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Weighted timed automata extend timed automata with costs on both locations and transitions. In this framework we study the optimal reachability and the optimal control synthesis problems for the automata with acyclic control graphs. This class of automata is relevant for some practical problems such as some static scheduling problems or airtraffic control problems. We give a nondeterministic polynomial time algorithm to solve the decision version of the considered optimal reachability problem. This algorithm matches the known lower bound on the reachability for acyclic timed automata, and thus the problem is NPcomplete. We also solve in doubly exponential time the corresponding control synthesis problem. ∗ The first and the second authors were supported in part by the NSF award CCR9970925,
Dense Realtime Games
 IN LICS 02
, 2002
"... The rapid development of complex and safetycritical systems requires the use of reliable verification methods and tools for system design (synthesis). Many systems of interest are reactive, in the sense that their behavior depends on the interaction with the environment. A natural framework to mode ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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The rapid development of complex and safetycritical systems requires the use of reliable verification methods and tools for system design (synthesis). Many systems of interest are reactive, in the sense that their behavior depends on the interaction with the environment. A natural framework to model them is a twoplayer game: the system versus the environment. In this context, the central problem is to determine the existence of a winning strategy according to a given winning condition. We focus on realtime systems, and choose to model the related game as a nondeterministic timed automaton. We express winning conditions by formulas of the branchingtime temporal logic TCTL. While timed games have been studied in the literature, timed games with densetime winning conditions constitute a new research topic. The main result of this paper is an exponentialtime algorithm to check for the existence of a winning strategy for TCTL games where equality is not allowed in the timing constraints. Our approach consists on translating to timed tree automata both the game graph and the winning condition, thus reducing the considered decision problem to the emptiness problem for this class of automata. The proposed algorithm matches the known lower bound on timed games. Moreover, if we relax the limitation we have placed on the timing constraints, the problem becomes undecidable.
Modular Certification
, 2002
"... Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly softwareintensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components tha ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly softwareintensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes.
Symbolic model checking for rectangular hybrid systems
 TACAS 2000: Tools and algorithms for the construction and analysis of systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, NewYork
, 2000
"... Abstract. An important case of hybrid systems are the rectangular automata. First, rectangular dynamics can naturally and arbitrarily closely approximate more general, nonlinear dynamics. Second, rectangular automata are the most general type of hybrid systems for which model checking in particular ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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Abstract. An important case of hybrid systems are the rectangular automata. First, rectangular dynamics can naturally and arbitrarily closely approximate more general, nonlinear dynamics. Second, rectangular automata are the most general type of hybrid systems for which model checking in particular, Ltl model checking  is decidable. However, on one hand, the original proofs of decidability did not suggest practical algorithms and, on the other hand, practical symbolic modelchecking procedures such as those implemented in HyTech  were not known to terminate on rectangular automata. We remedy this unsatisfactory situation: we present a symbolic method for Ltl model checking which can be performed by HyTech and is guaranteed to terminate on all rectangular automata. We dosoby proving that our method for symbolic Ltl model checking terminates on an in nitestate transition system if the traceequivalence relation of the system has nite index, which is the case for all rectangular automata. 1
Automatatheoretic Decision of Timed Games
, 2013
"... The solution of games is a key decision problem in the context of verification of open systems and program synthesis. Given a game graph and a specification, we wish to determine if there exists a strategy of the protagonist that allows to select only behaviors fulfilling the specification. In this ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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The solution of games is a key decision problem in the context of verification of open systems and program synthesis. Given a game graph and a specification, we wish to determine if there exists a strategy of the protagonist that allows to select only behaviors fulfilling the specification. In this paper, we consider timed games, where the game graph is a timed automaton and the specification is given by formulas of the temporal logics Ltl and Ctl. We present an automatatheoretic approach to solve the addressed games, extending to the timed framework a successful approach to solve discrete games. The main idea of this approach is to translate the timed automaton A, modeling the game graph, into a tree automaton AT accepting all trees that correspond to a strategy of the protagonist. Then, given an automaton corresponding to the specification, we intersect it with the tree automaton AT and check for the nonemptiness of the resulting automaton. Our approach yields a decision algorithm running in exponential time for Ctl and in double exponential time for Ltl. The obtained algorithms are optimal in the sense that their computational complexity matches the known lower bounds.