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297
Visual categorization with bags of keypoints
 In Workshop on Statistical Learning in Computer Vision, ECCV
, 2004
"... Abstract. We present a novel method for generic visual categorization: the problem of identifying the object content of natural images while generalizing across variations inherent to the object class. This bag of keypoints method is based on vector quantization of affine invariant descriptors of im ..."
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Cited by 592 (9 self)
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Abstract. We present a novel method for generic visual categorization: the problem of identifying the object content of natural images while generalizing across variations inherent to the object class. This bag of keypoints method is based on vector quantization of affine invariant descriptors of image patches. We propose and compare two alternative implementations using different classifiers: Naïve Bayes and SVM. The main advantages of the method are that it is simple, computationally efficient and intrinsically invariant. We present results for simultaneously classifying seven semantic visual categories. These results clearly demonstrate that the method is robust to background clutter and produces good categorization accuracy even without exploiting geometric information. 1.
Convolution Kernels for Natural Language
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 14
, 2001
"... We describe the application of kernel methods to Natural Language Processing (NLP) problems. In many NLP tasks the objects being modeled are strings, trees, graphs or other discrete structures which require some mechanism to convert them into feature vectors. We describe kernels for various natural ..."
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Cited by 254 (7 self)
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We describe the application of kernel methods to Natural Language Processing (NLP) problems. In many NLP tasks the objects being modeled are strings, trees, graphs or other discrete structures which require some mechanism to convert them into feature vectors. We describe kernels for various natural language structures, allowing rich, high dimensional representations of these structures. We show how a kernel over trees can be applied to parsing using the voted perceptron algorithm, and we give experimental results on the ATIS corpus of parse trees.
New Ranking Algorithms for Parsing and Tagging: Kernels over Discrete Structures, and the Voted Perceptron
, 2002
"... This paper introduces new learning algorithms for natural language processing based on the perceptron algorithm. We show how the algorithms can be efficiently applied to exponential sized representations of parse trees, such as the "all subtrees" (DOP) representation described by (Bod 98), or a r ..."
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Cited by 214 (6 self)
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This paper introduces new learning algorithms for natural language processing based on the perceptron algorithm. We show how the algorithms can be efficiently applied to exponential sized representations of parse trees, such as the "all subtrees" (DOP) representation described by (Bod 98), or a representation tracking all subfragments of a tagged sentence. We give experimental results showing significant improvements on two tasks: parsing Wall Street Journal text, and namedentity extraction from web data.
Dependency tree kernels for relation extraction
 In Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL04
, 2004
"... We extend previous work on tree kernels to estimate the similarity between the dependency trees of sentences. Using this kernel within a Support Vector Machine, we detect and classify relations between entities in the Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) corpus of news articles. We examine the utility ..."
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Cited by 180 (2 self)
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We extend previous work on tree kernels to estimate the similarity between the dependency trees of sentences. Using this kernel within a Support Vector Machine, we detect and classify relations between entities in the Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) corpus of news articles. We examine the utility of different features such as Wordnet hypernyms, parts of speech, and entity types, and find that the dependency tree kernel achieves a 20 % F1 improvement over a “bagofwords ” kernel. 1
Kernel Methods for Relation Extraction
, 2002
"... We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources. ..."
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Cited by 146 (0 self)
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We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources.
Marginalized kernels between labeled graphs
 Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2003
"... A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are defined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel computation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discretetime linear system, thus is efficiently performed by s ..."
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Cited by 144 (14 self)
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A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are defined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel computation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discretetime linear system, thus is efficiently performed by solving simultaneous linear equations. Our kernel is based on an infinite dimensional feature space, so it is fundamentally different from other string or tree kernels based on dynamic programming. We will present promising empirical results in classification of chemical compounds. 1 1.
A Generalized Representer Theorem
 In Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory
, 2001
"... Wahba's classical representer theorem states that the solutions of certain risk minimization problems involving an empirical risk term and a quadratic regularizer can be written as expansions in terms of the training examples. We generalize the theorem to a larger class of regularizers and empir ..."
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Cited by 136 (17 self)
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Wahba's classical representer theorem states that the solutions of certain risk minimization problems involving an empirical risk term and a quadratic regularizer can be written as expansions in terms of the training examples. We generalize the theorem to a larger class of regularizers and empirical risk terms, and give a selfcontained proof utilizing the feature space associated with a kernel. The result shows that a wide range of problems have optimal solutions that live in the finite dimensional span of the training examples mapped into feature space, thus enabling us to carry out kernel algorithms independent of the (potentially infinite) dimensionality of the feature space.
Mismatch string kernels for discriminative protein classification
 Bioinformatics
, 2004
"... Motivation: Classification of proteins sequences into functional and structural families based on sequence homology is a central problem in computational biology. Discriminative supervised machine learning approaches provide good performance, but simplicity and computational efficiency of training a ..."
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Cited by 131 (8 self)
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Motivation: Classification of proteins sequences into functional and structural families based on sequence homology is a central problem in computational biology. Discriminative supervised machine learning approaches provide good performance, but simplicity and computational efficiency of training and prediction are also important concerns. Results: We introduce a class of string kernels, called mismatch kernels, for use with support vector machines (SVMs) in a discriminative approach to the problem of protein classification and remote homology detection. These kernels measure sequence similarity based on shared occurrences of fixedlength patterns in the data, allowing for mutations between patterns.Thus, the kernels provide a biologically wellmotivated way to compare protein sequences without relying on familybased generative models such as hidden Markov models. We compute the kernels efficiently using a mismatch tree data structure, allowing us to calculate the contributions of all patterns occurring in the data in one pass while traversing the tree. When used with an SVM, the kernels enable fast prediction on test sequences. We report experiments on two benchmark SCOP datasets, where we show that the mismatch kernel used with an SVM classifier performs competitively with stateoftheart methods for homology detection, particularly when very few training examples are available. Examination of the highestweighted patterns learned by the SVM classifier recovers biologically important motifs in protein families and superfamilies. Availability: SVM software is publicly available at
W.S.: Mismatch string kernels for SVM protein classification
 In: Proc. of NIPS. (2003
"... We introduce a class of string kernels, called mismatch kernels, for use with support vector machines (SVMs) in a discriminative approach to the protein classification problem. These kernels measure sequence similarity based on shared occurrences of klength subsequences, counted with up to m mismat ..."
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Cited by 126 (17 self)
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We introduce a class of string kernels, called mismatch kernels, for use with support vector machines (SVMs) in a discriminative approach to the protein classification problem. These kernels measure sequence similarity based on shared occurrences of klength subsequences, counted with up to m mismatches, and do not rely on any generative model for the positive training sequences. We compute the kernels efficiently using a mismatch tree data structure and report experiments on a benchmark SCOP dataset, where we show that the mismatch kernel used with an SVM classifier performs as well as the Fisher kernel, the most successful method for remote homology detection, while achieving considerable computational savings. 1
On graph kernels: Hardness results and efficient alternatives
 IN: CONFERENCE ON LEARNING THEORY
, 2003
"... As most ‘realworld’ data is structured, research in kernel methods has begun investigating kernels for various kinds of structured data. One of the most widely used tools for modeling structured data are graphs. An interesting and important challenge is thus to investigate kernels on instances tha ..."
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Cited by 124 (6 self)
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As most ‘realworld’ data is structured, research in kernel methods has begun investigating kernels for various kinds of structured data. One of the most widely used tools for modeling structured data are graphs. An interesting and important challenge is thus to investigate kernels on instances that are represented by graphs. So far, only very specific graphs such as trees and strings have been considered. This paper investigates kernels on labeled directed graphs with general structure. It is shown that computing a strictly positive definite graph kernel is at least as hard as solving the graph isomorphism problem. It is also shown that computing an inner product in a feature space indexed by all possible graphs, where each feature counts the number of subgraphs isomorphic to that graph, is NPhard. On the other hand, inner products in an alternative feature space, based on walks in the graph, can be computed in polynomial time. Such kernels are defined in this paper.