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36
On the acceptability of arguments and its fundamental role in nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and nperson games
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... The purpose of this paper is to study the fundamental mechanism humans use in argumentation and its role in different major approaches to commonsense reasoning in AI and logic programming. We present three novel results: We develop a theory for argumentation in which the acceptability of arguments i ..."
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Cited by 775 (12 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to study the fundamental mechanism humans use in argumentation and its role in different major approaches to commonsense reasoning in AI and logic programming. We present three novel results: We develop a theory for argumentation in which the acceptability of arguments is precisely defined. We show that logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning in AI are different forms of argumentation. We show that argumentation can be viewed as a special form of logic programming with negation as failure. This result introduces a general method for generating metainterpreters for argumentation systems. 1.
Constraint Logic Programming: A Survey
"... Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in differe ..."
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Cited by 771 (23 self)
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Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in different areas of applications. In this survey of CLP, a primary goal is to give a systematic description of the major trends in terms of common fundamental concepts. The three main parts cover the theory, implementation issues, and programming for applications.
Bilattices and the Semantics of Logic Programming
, 1989
"... Bilattices, due to M. Ginsberg, are a family of truth value spaces that allow elegantly for missing or conflicting information. The simplest example is Belnap's fourvalued logic, based on classical twovalued logic. Among other examples are those based on finite manyvalued logics, and on probabili ..."
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Cited by 380 (13 self)
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Bilattices, due to M. Ginsberg, are a family of truth value spaces that allow elegantly for missing or conflicting information. The simplest example is Belnap's fourvalued logic, based on classical twovalued logic. Among other examples are those based on finite manyvalued logics, and on probabilistic valued logic. A fixed point semantics is developed for logic programming, allowing any bilattice as the space of truth values. The mathematics is little more complex than in the classical twovalued setting, but the result provides a natural semantics for distributed logic programs, including those involving confidence factors. The classical twovalued and the Kripke/Kleene threevalued semantics become special cases, since the logics involved are natural sublogics of Belnap's logic, the logic given by the simplest bilattice. 1 Introduction Often useful information is spread over a number of sites ("Does anybody know, did Willie wear a hat when he left this morning?") that can be speci...
Temporal Reasoning in Logic Programming: A Case for the Situation Calculus
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE IN LOGIC PROGRAMMING, HUNGARY
, 1993
"... We propose, and axiomatize, an extended version of the situation calculus [10] for temporal reasoning in a logic programming framework. This extended language provides for a linear temporal structure, which may be viewed as a path of actual event occurrences within the tree of possible situations ..."
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Cited by 87 (5 self)
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We propose, and axiomatize, an extended version of the situation calculus [10] for temporal reasoning in a logic programming framework. This extended language provides for a linear temporal structure, which may be viewed as a path of actual event occurrences within the tree of possible situations of the "classical" situation calculus. The extended language provides for events to occur and fluents to hold at specific points in time. As a result, it is possible to establish a close correspondence between this extended situation calculus and other linear time formalisms which have been proposed in opposition to the situation calculus. In particular, we argue that the functionality of the event calculus [6] is subsumed by the extended situation calculus. We present a logic program for temporal reasoning which is provably sound for our axiomatization, relative to the Clark completion semantics of the program. Our logic programming approach has the advantage of being grounded in a pure (without negation as failure) first order axiomatization suitable for reasoning about events and their occurrences. Moreover, efficient algorithms can be obtained for a suitable class of temporal reasoning problems, following the ideas of Kowalski [5].
Dependently Typed Functional Programs and their Proofs
, 1999
"... Research in dependent type theories [ML71a] has, in the past, concentrated on its use in the presentation of theorems and theoremproving. This thesis is concerned mainly with the exploitation of the computational aspects of type theory for programming, in a context where the properties of programs ..."
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Cited by 70 (13 self)
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Research in dependent type theories [ML71a] has, in the past, concentrated on its use in the presentation of theorems and theoremproving. This thesis is concerned mainly with the exploitation of the computational aspects of type theory for programming, in a context where the properties of programs may readily be specified and established. In particular, it develops technology for programming with dependent inductive families of datatypes and proving those programs correct. It demonstrates the considerable advantage to be gained by indexing data structures with pertinent characteristic information whose soundness is ensured by typechecking, rather than human effort. Type theory traditionally presents safe and terminating computation on inductive datatypes by means of elimination rules which serve as induction principles and, via their associated reduction behaviour, recursion operators [Dyb91]. In the programming language arena, these appear somewhat cumbersome and give rise to unappealing code, complicated by the inevitable interaction between case analysis on dependent types and equational reasoning on their indices which must appear explicitly in the terms. Thierry Coquand’s proposal [Coq92] to equip type theory directly with the kind of
Current Approaches to Handling Imperfect Information in Data and Knowledge Bases
, 1996
"... This paper surveys methods for representing and reasoning with imperfect information. It opens with an attempt to classify the different types of imperfection that may pervade data, and a discussion of the sources of such imperfections. The classification is then used as a framework for considering ..."
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Cited by 52 (1 self)
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This paper surveys methods for representing and reasoning with imperfect information. It opens with an attempt to classify the different types of imperfection that may pervade data, and a discussion of the sources of such imperfections. The classification is then used as a framework for considering work that explicitly concerns the representation of imperfect information, and related work on how imperfect information may be used as a basis for reasoning. The work that is surveyed is drawn from both the field of databases and the field of artificial intelligence. Both of these areas have long been concerned with the problems caused by imperfect information, and this paper stresses the relationships between the approaches developed in each.
A Logic Programming View of CLP
 International Conference on Logic Programming
, 1993
"... We address the problem of lifting definitions, results, and even proofs for the theory of logic programming, so that they apply to constraint logic programming (CLP). We attempt to systematize this lifting, where it is possible, and delineate where it is not possible. We show that the Independence o ..."
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Cited by 47 (9 self)
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We address the problem of lifting definitions, results, and even proofs for the theory of logic programming, so that they apply to constraint logic programming (CLP). We attempt to systematize this lifting, where it is possible, and delineate where it is not possible. We show that the Independence of Negated Constraints property of constraint domains is fundamental to several different aspects of constraint logic programming. This is a principal cause for the inability to lift some traditional logic programming results to constraint logic programming. 1 Introduction We address the problem of lifting definitions, results, and even proofs for the theory of logic programming, so that they apply to constraint logic programming (CLP). (In viewing the theory of constraint logic programming as lifted from the theory of logic programming, we are taking a logic programming view of CLP.) Several papers have dealt with this problem for specific results, mostly inspired by the CLP Scheme [10, 11...
Bilattices In Logic Programming
, 1990
"... Bilattices, introduced by M. Ginsberg, constitute an elegant family of multiplevalued logics. Those meeting certain natural conditions have provided the basis for the semantics of a family of logic programming languages. Now we consider further restrictions on bilattices, to narrow things down to l ..."
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Cited by 42 (4 self)
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Bilattices, introduced by M. Ginsberg, constitute an elegant family of multiplevalued logics. Those meeting certain natural conditions have provided the basis for the semantics of a family of logic programming languages. Now we consider further restrictions on bilattices, to narrow things down to logic programming languages that can, at least in principle, be implemented. Appropriate bilattice background information is presented, so the paper is relatively selfcontained. 1 Introduction Logic programming is more than just Prolog. It is a distinctive way of thinking about computers and programming that has led to the creation of a whole family of programming languages, mostly experimental. Some time ago I found that bilattices provided a uniform semantics for a rich and interesting group of logic programming languages [9]. Bilattices are a natural generalization of classical twovalued logic, and were introduced by Matt Ginsberg in [12], and more fully in [13]. Recently I have found t...
Correctness of a logic program transformation system
 IBM Research Report RC13496, T.J. Watson Research
, 1987
"... This paper discusses correctness of a simple transformation system for logic programs. The transformation system is based on Unfold/Fold transformations, but differs in the form of folding from Tamaki and Sato’s system. We present three progressively stronger forms of this system and prove progressi ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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This paper discusses correctness of a simple transformation system for logic programs. The transformation system is based on Unfold/Fold transformations, but differs in the form of folding from Tamaki and Sato’s system. We present three progressively stronger forms of this system and prove progressively weaker forms of correctness. We give attention to the effects of transformation on finite failure as well as on successful computations. 1
A ModelTheoretic Semantics for Defeasible Logic
 Proc. Workshop on Paraconsistent Computational Logic
, 2002
"... Defeasible logic is an efficient logic for defeasible reasoning. ..."
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Cited by 18 (4 self)
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Defeasible logic is an efficient logic for defeasible reasoning.