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An Ontology for Commitments in Multiagent Systems: Toward a Unification of Normative Concepts
 Artificial Intelligence and Law
"... . Social commitments have long been recognized as an important concept for multiagent systems. We propose a rich formulation of social commitments that motivates an architecture for multiagent systems, which we dub spheres of commitment. We identify the key operations on commitments and multiagent s ..."
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Cited by 174 (52 self)
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. Social commitments have long been recognized as an important concept for multiagent systems. We propose a rich formulation of social commitments that motivates an architecture for multiagent systems, which we dub spheres of commitment. We identify the key operations on commitments and multiagent systems. We distinguish between explicit and implicit commitments. Multiagent systems, viewed as spheres of commitment (SoComs), provide the context for the different operations on commitments. Armed with the above ideas, we can capture normative concepts such as obligations, taboos, conventions, and pledges as different kinds of commitments. In this manner, we synthesize ideas from multiagent systems, particularly that of social context, with ideas from ethics and legal reasoning, specifically that of directed obligations in the Hohfeldian tradition. Key words: Commitments, Multiagent Systems, Norms 1. Introduction Social commitments are crucial to the science of multiagent systems. They a...
Dynamic Epistemic Logic
 Logic, Language, and Information 2, Stanford University, CSLI Publication
, 1997
"... This paper is the result of combining two traditions in formal logic: epistemic logic and dynamic semantics. Dynamic semantics is a branch of formal semantics that is concerned with ..."
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Cited by 41 (1 self)
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This paper is the result of combining two traditions in formal logic: epistemic logic and dynamic semantics. Dynamic semantics is a branch of formal semantics that is concerned with
Communication and folk psychology
 Mind & Language
"... Sperber and Wilson among others) have viewed basic communicative acts as essentially involving the attitudes of the participating agents. Developmental data poses a dilemma for these accounts, since it suggests children below age four are competent communicators but would lack the ability to concep ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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Sperber and Wilson among others) have viewed basic communicative acts as essentially involving the attitudes of the participating agents. Developmental data poses a dilemma for these accounts, since it suggests children below age four are competent communicators but would lack the ability to conceptualise communication if philosophers and linguists are right about what communication is. This paper argues that this dilemma is quite serious and that these prominent accounts would be undermined if an adequate more minimal alternative were available. Just such a minimalist account of communication is offered, drawing on ideas from relevance theory and situation theory. 1.
Semantics of Cooperative Dialogues
 The Proceedings of the 1994 Kyoto Conference: A Festschrift for Professor Akira Ikeya
, 1995
"... In this paper, I propose a semantic framework of the theory for cooperative dialogues in [18]. This framework is called SCD (Semantics of Cooperative Dialogues). It consists of a combination of DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) [2, 11, 13] and the Situation Semantics [5]. It also concludes a re ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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In this paper, I propose a semantic framework of the theory for cooperative dialogues in [18]. This framework is called SCD (Semantics of Cooperative Dialogues). It consists of a combination of DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) [2, 11, 13] and the Situation Semantics [5]. It also concludes a revision algorithm of shared belief in dialogues. Then I present some formal properties of SCD: possible situations, beliefsharing and selfreferential part, and ontology of discourse referents. Next, some linguistic applications of SCD are discussed: negation and denial, QuantifyingIn, HobNob sentence, and Conway paradox. 1
Situated Modeling of Epistemic Puzzles
, 1995
"... Situation theory is a mathematical theory of meaning introduced by Jon Barwise and John Perry. It has evoked great theoretical interest and motivated the framework of a few `computational' systems. PROSIT is the pioneering work in this direction. Unfortunately, there is a lack of reallife appl ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Situation theory is a mathematical theory of meaning introduced by Jon Barwise and John Perry. It has evoked great theoretical interest and motivated the framework of a few `computational' systems. PROSIT is the pioneering work in this direction. Unfortunately, there is a lack of reallife applications on these systems and this study is a preliminary attempt to remedy this deficiency. Here, we solve a group of epistemic puzzles using the constructs provided by PROSIT. Keywords: computational situation theory, epistemic puzzles, common knowledge, PROSIT 1 Introduction Situation theory is a principled programme to develop a mathematical theory of meaning which aims to clarify and resolve some formidable problems in the study of language, information, logic, and philosophy of mind. It was introduced by Jon Barwise and John Perry in their Situations and Attitudes [3] and stimulated great interest. The theory matured within the last ten years or so [6, 7] and various versions of it have b...
Nonstandard Set Theories and Information Management
"... . The merits of set theory as a foundational tool in mathematics stimulate its use in various areas of artificial intelligence, in particular intelligent information systems. In this paper, a study of various nonstandard treatments of set theory from this perspective is offered. Applications of thes ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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. The merits of set theory as a foundational tool in mathematics stimulate its use in various areas of artificial intelligence, in particular intelligent information systems. In this paper, a study of various nonstandard treatments of set theory from this perspective is offered. Applications of these alternative set theories to information or knowledge management are surveyed. Keywords: set theory, knowledge representation, information management, commonsense reasoning, nonwellfounded sets (hypersets) 1. Introduction Set theory is a branch of modern mathematics with a unique place because various other branches can be formally defined within it. For example, Book 1 of the influential works of N. Bourbaki is devoted to the theory of sets and provides the framework for the remaining volumes. Bourbaki said in 1949 (Goldblatt, 1984) 1 : "[A]ll mathematical theories may be regarded as extensions of the general theory of sets : : : [O]n these foundations I can state that I can build up t...
Distributed Knowledge
"... In this paper, two definitions for the notion of distributed knowledge in possible worlds semantics are discussed and compared. In the first definition distributed knowledge is characterized by intersection of information states, the second defines the concept as `those sentences that are logical co ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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In this paper, two definitions for the notion of distributed knowledge in possible worlds semantics are discussed and compared. In the first definition distributed knowledge is characterized by intersection of information states, the second defines the concept as `those sentences that are logical consequences of the beliefs of the agents.' I will argue that the effect of the first kind of definition depends on the ontological view one has about possible worlds, and that the second kind of definition depends on the expressive power of the language. I will also show that the logic of the two operators is the same, in the sense that the logics have the same weakly sound and complete axiom system.
HYPERSOLVER: A Graphical Tool for Commonsense Set Theory
, 1996
"... This paper investigates an alternative set theory (due to Peter Aczel) called Hyperset Theory. Aczel uses a graphical representation for sets and thereby allows the representation of nonwellfounded sets. A program, called HYPERSOLVER, which can solve systems of equations defined in terms of sets ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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This paper investigates an alternative set theory (due to Peter Aczel) called Hyperset Theory. Aczel uses a graphical representation for sets and thereby allows the representation of nonwellfounded sets. A program, called HYPERSOLVER, which can solve systems of equations defined in terms of sets in the universe of this new theory is presented. This may be a useful tool for commonsense reasoning. 1 INTRODUCTION Set theory has long occupied a unique place in mathematics since it allows various other branches of mathematics to be formally defined within it. The theory has ignited many debates on its nature and a number of different axiomatizations were developed to formalize its underlying `philosophical' principles. Collecting entities into an abstraction for further thought (i.e., set construction) is an important process in mathematics, and this brings in assorted problems [5]. The theory had many groundshaking crises (like the discovery of the Russell's Paradox [6]) throughout it...