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FiniteState Transducers in Language and Speech Processing
 Computational Linguistics
, 1997
"... Finitestate machines have been used in various domains of natural language processing. We consider here the use of a type of transducers that supports very efficient programs: sequential transducers. We recall classical theorems and give new ones characterizing sequential stringtostring transducer ..."
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Cited by 320 (42 self)
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Finitestate machines have been used in various domains of natural language processing. We consider here the use of a type of transducers that supports very efficient programs: sequential transducers. We recall classical theorems and give new ones characterizing sequential stringtostring transducers. Transducers that output weights also play an important role in language and speech processing. We give a specific study of stringtoweight transducers, including algorithms for determinizing and minimizing these transducers very efficiently, and characterizations of the transducers admitting determinization and the corresponding algorithms. Some applications of these algorithms in speech recognition are described and illustrated. 1.
Transductions and contextfree languages
 Ed. Teubner
, 1979
"... 1.1 Notation and examples......................... 3 ..."
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Cited by 248 (4 self)
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1.1 Notation and examples......................... 3
The Expression Of Graph Properties And Graph Transformations In Monadic SecondOrder Logic
, 1997
"... By considering graphs as logical structures, one... ..."
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Cited by 149 (40 self)
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By considering graphs as logical structures, one...
Static Approximation of Dynamically Generated Web Pages
, 2005
"... Serverside programming is one of the key technologies that support today's WWW environment. It makes it possible to generate Web pages dynamically according to a user's request and to customize pages for each user. However, the flexibility obtained by serverside programming makes it much ..."
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Cited by 89 (3 self)
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Serverside programming is one of the key technologies that support today's WWW environment. It makes it possible to generate Web pages dynamically according to a user's request and to customize pages for each user. However, the flexibility obtained by serverside programming makes it much harder to guarantee validity and security of dynamically generated pages.
FiniteState Transducers
 in Speech Recognition. Computer Speech and Language
, 1997
"... Abstract. psubsequential transducers are efficient finitestate transducers with p final outputs used in a variety of applications. Not all transducers admit equivalent psubsequential transducers however. We briefly describe an existing generalized determinization algorithm for psubsequential tran ..."
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Cited by 78 (18 self)
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Abstract. psubsequential transducers are efficient finitestate transducers with p final outputs used in a variety of applications. Not all transducers admit equivalent psubsequential transducers however. We briefly describe an existing generalized determinization algorithm for psubsequential transducers and give the first characterization of psubsequentiable transducers, transducers that admit equivalent psubsequential transducers. Our characterization shows the existence of an efficient algorithm for testing psubsequentiability. We have fully implemented the generalized determinization algorithm and the algorithm for testing psubsequentiability. We report experimental results showing that these algorithms are practical in largevocabulary speech recognition applications. The theoretical formulation of our results is the equivalence of the following three properties for finitestate transducers: determinizability in the sense of the generalized algorithm, psubsequentiability, and the twins property. 1
An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules
 IN 34TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
, 1996
"... Contextdependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finitestate transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compilin ..."
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Cited by 76 (25 self)
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Contextdependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finitestate transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compiling rewrite rules into FSTs. We show the algorithm to be simpler and more efficient than existing algorithms. Further, many
SEMIRING FRAMEWORKS AND ALGORITHMS FOR SHORTESTDISTANCE PROBLEMS
, 2002
"... We define general algebraic frameworks for shortestdistance problems based on the structure of semirings. We give a generic algorithm for finding singlesource shortest distances in a weighted directed graph when the weights satisfy the conditions of our general semiring framework. The same algorit ..."
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Cited by 76 (20 self)
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We define general algebraic frameworks for shortestdistance problems based on the structure of semirings. We give a generic algorithm for finding singlesource shortest distances in a weighted directed graph when the weights satisfy the conditions of our general semiring framework. The same algorithm can be used to solve efficiently classical shortest paths problems or to find the kshortest distances in a directed graph. It can be used to solve singlesource shortestdistance problems in weighted directed acyclic graphs over any semiring. We examine several semirings and describe some specific instances of our generic algorithms to illustrate their use and compare them with existing methods and algorithms. The proof of the soundness of all algorithms is given in detail, including their pseudocode and a full analysis of their running time complexity.
Dynamical Recognizers: Realtime Language Recognition by Analog Computers
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... We consider a model of analog computation which can recognize various languages in real time. We encode an input word as a point in R d by composing iterated maps, and then apply inequalities to the resulting point to test for membership in the language. Each class of maps and inequalities, suc ..."
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Cited by 59 (4 self)
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We consider a model of analog computation which can recognize various languages in real time. We encode an input word as a point in R d by composing iterated maps, and then apply inequalities to the resulting point to test for membership in the language. Each class of maps and inequalities, such as quadratic functions with rational coefficients, is capable of recognizing a particular class of languages; for instance, linear and quadratic maps can have both stacklike and queuelike memories. We use methods equivalent to the VapnikChervonenkis dimension to separate some of our classes from each other, e.g. linear maps are less powerful than quadratic or piecewiselinear ones, polynomials are less powerful than elementary (trigonometric and exponential) maps, and deterministic polynomials of each degree are less powerful than their nondeterministic counterparts. Comparing these dynamical classes with various discrete language classes helps illuminate how iterated maps can...
Minimization Algorithms for Sequential Transducers
, 2000
"... We present general algorithms for minimizing sequential finitestate transducers that output strings or numbers. The algorithms are shown to be efficient since in the case of acyclic transducers and for output strings they operate in O(S+E+V+(EV+F)x(Pmax+1)) steps, where S is the sum of ..."
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Cited by 58 (12 self)
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We present general algorithms for minimizing sequential finitestate transducers that output strings or numbers. The algorithms are shown to be efficient since in the case of acyclic transducers and for output strings they operate in O(S+E+V+(EV+F)x(Pmax+1)) steps, where S is the sum of the lengths of all output labels of the resulting transducer, E the set of transitions of the given transducer, V the set of its states, F the set of final states, and Pmax one of the longest of the longest common prefixes of the output paths leaving each state of the transducer. The algorithms apply to a larger class of transducers which includes subsequential transducers.
Deciding Properties for Message Sequence Charts
, 1998
"... Message sequence charts (MSC) are commonly used in designing communication systems. They allow describing the communication skeleton of a system and can be used for finding design errors. First, a specification formalism that is based on MSC graphs, combining finite message sequence charts, is p ..."
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Cited by 54 (9 self)
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Message sequence charts (MSC) are commonly used in designing communication systems. They allow describing the communication skeleton of a system and can be used for finding design errors. First, a specification formalism that is based on MSC graphs, combining finite message sequence charts, is presented. We present then an automatic validation algorithm for systems described using the message sequence charts notation. The validation problem is tightly related to a natural languagetheoretic problem over semitraces (a generalization of Mazurkiewicz traces, which represent partially ordered executions). We show that a similar and natural decision problem is undecidable. 1