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Optimal Capital Structure, Endogenous Bankruptcy, and the Term Structure of Credit Spreads
 THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, VOL. 51, NO. 3, PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTYSIXTH
, 1996
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On Positive Harris Recurrence of Multiclass Queueing Networks: A Unified Approach Via Fluid Limit Models
 Annals of Applied Probability
, 1995
"... It is now known that the usual traffic condition (the nominal load being less than one at each station) is not sufficient for stability for a multiclass open queueing network. Although there has been some progress in establishing the stability conditions for a multiclass network, there is no unified ..."
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Cited by 361 (29 self)
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It is now known that the usual traffic condition (the nominal load being less than one at each station) is not sufficient for stability for a multiclass open queueing network. Although there has been some progress in establishing the stability conditions for a multiclass network, there is no unified approach to this problem. In this paper, we prove that a queueing network is positive Harris recurrent if the corresponding fluid limit model eventually reaches zero and stays there regardless of the initial system configuration. As an application of the result, we prove that single class networks, multiclass feedforward networks and firstbufferfirstserved preemptive resume discipline in a reentrant line are positive Harris recurrent under the usual traffic condition. AMS 1991 subject classification: Primary 60K25, 90B22; Secondary 60K20, 90B35. Key words and phrases: multiclass queueing networks, Harris positive recurrent, stability, fluid approximation Running title: Stability of mu...
Term structures of credit spreads with incomplete accounting information
 ECONOMETRICA
, 2001
"... We study the implications of imperfect information for term structures of credit spreads on corporate bonds. We suppose that bond investors cannot observe the issuer’s assets directly, and receive instead only periodic and imperfect accounting reports. For a setting in which the assets of the firm ..."
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Cited by 307 (18 self)
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We study the implications of imperfect information for term structures of credit spreads on corporate bonds. We suppose that bond investors cannot observe the issuer’s assets directly, and receive instead only periodic and imperfect accounting reports. For a setting in which the assets of the firm are a geometric Brownian motion until informed equityholders optimally liquidate, we derive the conditional distribution of the assets, given accounting data and survivorship. Contrary to the perfectinformation case, there exists a defaultarrival intensity process. That intensity is calculated in terms of the conditional distribution of assets. Credit yield spreads are characterized in terms of accounting information. Generalizations are provided.
Maximizing Queueing Network Utility Subject to Stability: Greedy Primaldual algorithm
 Queueing Systems
, 2005
"... We study a model of controlled queueing network, which operates and makes control decisions in discrete time. An underlying random network mode determines the set of available controls in each time slot. Each control decision \produces " a certain vector of \commodities"; it also has assoc ..."
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Cited by 206 (9 self)
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We study a model of controlled queueing network, which operates and makes control decisions in discrete time. An underlying random network mode determines the set of available controls in each time slot. Each control decision \produces " a certain vector of \commodities"; it also has associated \traditional " queueing control eect, i.e., it determines traÆc (customer) arrival rates, service rates at the nodes, and random routing of processed customers among the nodes. The problem is to nd a dynamic control strategy which maximizes a concave utility function H(X), where X is the average value of commodity vector, subject to the constraint that network queues remain stable. We introduce a dynamic control algorithm, which we call Greedy PrimalDual (GPD) algorithm, and prove its asymptotic optimality. We show that our network model and GPD algorithm accommodate a wide range of applications. As one example, we consider the problem of congestion control of networks where both traÆc sources and network processing nodes may be randomly timevarying and interdependent. We also discuss a variety of resource allocation problems in wireless networks, which in particular involve average power consumption constraints and/or optimization, as well as traÆc rate constraints.
An EBITbased model of dynamic capital structure, forthcoming
 Journal of Business
, 2000
"... Most capital structure models assume that the decision of how much debt to issue is a static choice. In practice, however, firms adjust outstanding debt levels in response to changes in firm value. In this article, we ..."
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Cited by 189 (9 self)
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Most capital structure models assume that the decision of how much debt to issue is a static choice. In practice, however, firms adjust outstanding debt levels in response to changes in firm value. In this article, we
TimeChanged Lévy Processes and Option Pricing
, 2002
"... As is well known, the classic BlackScholes option pricing model assumes that returns follow Brownian motion. It is widely recognized that return processes differ from this benchmark in at least three important ways. First, asset prices jump, leading to nonnormal return innovations. Second, return ..."
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Cited by 182 (21 self)
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As is well known, the classic BlackScholes option pricing model assumes that returns follow Brownian motion. It is widely recognized that return processes differ from this benchmark in at least three important ways. First, asset prices jump, leading to nonnormal return innovations. Second, return volatilities vary stochastically over time. Third, returns and their volatilities are correlated, often negatively for equities. We propose that timechanged Lévy processes be used to simultaneously address these three facets of the underlying asset return process. We show that our framework encompasses almost all of the models proposed in the option pricing literature. Despite the generality of our approach, we show that it is straightforward to select and test a particular option pricing model through the use of characteristic function technology.
Do Firms Rebalance Their Capital Structure
, 2003
"... We empirically examine the tradeoff theory of capital structure, allowing for costly adjustment. After confirming that financing behavior is consistent with the presence of adjustment costs, we use a dynamic duration model to show that firms behave as though adhering to a dynamic tradeoff policy i ..."
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Cited by 166 (8 self)
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We empirically examine the tradeoff theory of capital structure, allowing for costly adjustment. After confirming that financing behavior is consistent with the presence of adjustment costs, we use a dynamic duration model to show that firms behave as though adhering to a dynamic tradeoff policy in which they actively rebalance their leverage to stay within an optimal range. We find that firms respond to changes in their equity value, due to price shocks or equity issuances, by adjusting their leverage over the two to four years following the change. The presence of adjustment costs, however, often prevents this response from occurring immediately, resulting in shocks to leverage that have a persistent effect. Our evidence suggests that this persistence is more likely a result of optimizing behavior in the presence of adjustment costs, as opposed to market timing or indifference.
Option Exercise Games: An Application to the Equilibrium Investment Strategies of Firms
 Review of Financial Studies
"... Under the standard real options approach to investment under uncertainty, agents formulate optimal exercise strategies in isolation and ignore competitive interactions. However, in many realworld asset markets, exercise strategies cannot be determined separately, but must be formed as part of a str ..."
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Cited by 152 (5 self)
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Under the standard real options approach to investment under uncertainty, agents formulate optimal exercise strategies in isolation and ignore competitive interactions. However, in many realworld asset markets, exercise strategies cannot be determined separately, but must be formed as part of a strategic equilibrium. This article provides a tractable approach for deriving equilibrium investment strategies in a continuoustime Cournot–Nash framework. The impact of competition on exercise strategies is dramatic. For example, while standard real options models emphasize that a valuable “option to wait ” leads firms to invest only at large positive net present values, the impact of competition drastically erodes the value of the option to wait and leads to investment at very near the zero net present value threshold. The real options approach to analyzing investment under uncertainty has become part of the mainstream literature of financial economics. The real options approach to investment now typically comprises an entire chapter in corporate finance textbooks [see, e.g., Brealey and Myers (2000) and Van Horne (1998)]. Essentially the real options approach posits that the opportunity to invest in a project is analogous to an American call option on the investment opportunity. Once that analogy is made, the vast and rigorous machinery of financial options theory is at the disposal of real investment analysis. The real options approach is well summarized in Dixit and Pindyck (1994) and Trigeorgis (1996).1 A feature that the vast majority of real options articles have in common is the lack of strategic interaction across option holders. Investment (exercise) strategies are formulated in isolation, without regard to the potential impact of other firms ’ exercise strategies. The standard starting point for such models is an exogenous process for underlying asset values (e.g., the stock price in
Statedependent pricing and the dynamics of money and output
, 1991
"... you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, noncommercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact inform ..."
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Cited by 136 (15 self)
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you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, noncommercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at