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Deterministic and Stochastic Models for Coalescence (Aggregation, Coagulation): a Review of the MeanField Theory for Probabilists
 Bernoulli
, 1997
"... Consider N particles, which merge into clusters according to the rule: a cluster of size x and a cluster of size y merge at (stochastic) rate K(x; y)=N , where K is a specified rate kernel. This MarcusLushnikov model of stochastic coalescence, and the underlying deterministic approximation given by ..."
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Cited by 142 (13 self)
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Consider N particles, which merge into clusters according to the rule: a cluster of size x and a cluster of size y merge at (stochastic) rate K(x; y)=N , where K is a specified rate kernel. This MarcusLushnikov model of stochastic coalescence, and the underlying deterministic approximation given by the Smoluchowski coagulation equations, have an extensive scientific literature. Some mathematical literature (Kingman's coalescent in population genetics; component sizes in random graphs) implicitly studies the special cases K(x; y) = 1 and K(x; y) = xy. We attempt a wideranging survey. General kernels are only now starting to be studied rigorously, so many interesting open problems appear. Keywords. branching process, coalescence, continuum tree, densitydependent Markov process, gelation, random graph, random tree, Smoluchowski coagulation equation Research supported by N.S.F. Grant DMS9622859 1 Introduction Models, implicitly or explicitly stochastic, of coalescence (= coagulati...
The Standard Additive Coalescent
, 1997
"... Regard an element of the set \Delta := f(x 1 ; x 2 ; : : :) : x 1 x 2 : : : 0; X i x i = 1g as a fragmentation of unit mass into clusters of masses x i . The additive coalescent of Evans and Pitman (1997) is the \Deltavalued Markov process in which pairs of clusters of masses fx i ; x j g mer ..."
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Cited by 63 (22 self)
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Regard an element of the set \Delta := f(x 1 ; x 2 ; : : :) : x 1 x 2 : : : 0; X i x i = 1g as a fragmentation of unit mass into clusters of masses x i . The additive coalescent of Evans and Pitman (1997) is the \Deltavalued Markov process in which pairs of clusters of masses fx i ; x j g merge into a cluster of mass x i +x j at rate x i +x j . They showed that a version (X 1 (t); \Gamma1 ! t ! 1) of this process arises as a n !1 weak limit of the process started at time \Gamma 1 2 log n with n clusters of mass 1=n. We show this standard additive coalescent may be constructed from the continuum random tree of Aldous (1991,1993) by Poisson splitting along the skeleton of the tree. We describe the distribution of X 1 (t) on \Delta at a fixed time t. We show that the size of the cluster containing a given atom, as a process in t, has a simple representation in terms of the stable subordinator of index 1=2. As t ! \Gamma1, we establish a Gaussian limit for (centered and norm...
Construction Of Markovian Coalescents
 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincar'e
, 1997
"... Partitionvalued and measurevalued coalescent Markov processes are constructed whose state describes the decomposition of a finite total mass m into a finite or countably infinite number of masses with sum m, and whose evolution is determined by the following intuitive prescription: each pair of ma ..."
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Cited by 44 (20 self)
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Partitionvalued and measurevalued coalescent Markov processes are constructed whose state describes the decomposition of a finite total mass m into a finite or countably infinite number of masses with sum m, and whose evolution is determined by the following intuitive prescription: each pair of masses of magnitudes x and y runs the risk of a binary collision to form a single mass of magnitude x+y at rate (x; y), for some nonnegative, symmetric collision rate kernel (x; y). Such processes with finitely many masses have been used to model polymerization, coagulation, condensation, and the evolution of galactic clusters by gravitational attraction. With a suitable choice of state space, and under appropriate restrictions on and the initial distribution of mass, it is shown that such processes can be constructed as Feller or Fellerlike processes. A number of further results are obtained for the additive coalescent with collision kernel (x; y) = x + y. This process, which arises fro...
Enumerations Of Trees And Forests Related To Branching Processes And Random Walks
 Microsurveys in Discrete Probability, number 41 in DIMACS Ser. Discrete Math. Theoret. Comp. Sci
, 1997
"... In a GaltonWatson branching process with offspring distribution (p 0 ; p 1 ; : : :) started with k individuals, the distribution of the total progeny is identical to the distribution of the first passage time to \Gammak for a random walk started at 0 which takes steps of size j with probability p ..."
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Cited by 38 (15 self)
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In a GaltonWatson branching process with offspring distribution (p 0 ; p 1 ; : : :) started with k individuals, the distribution of the total progeny is identical to the distribution of the first passage time to \Gammak for a random walk started at 0 which takes steps of size j with probability p j+1 for j \Gamma1. The formula for this distribution is a probabilistic expression of the Lagrange inversion formula for the coefficients in the power series expansion of f(z) k in terms of those of g(z) for f(z) defined implicitly by f(z) = zg(f(z)). The Lagrange inversion formula is the analytic counterpart of various enumerations of trees and forests which generalize Cayley's formula kn n\Gammak\Gamma1 for the number of rooted forests labeled by a set of size n whose set of roots is a particular subset of size k. These known results are derived by elementary combinatorial methods without appeal to the Lagrange formula, which is then obtained as a byproduct. This approach unifies an...
TreeValued Markov Chains Derived From GaltonWatson Processes.
 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincar'e
, 1997
"... Let G be a GaltonWatson tree, and for 0 u 1 let G u be the subtree of G obtained by retaining each edge with probability u. We study the treevalued Markov process (G u ; 0 u 1) and an analogous process (G u ; 0 u 1) in which G 1 is a critical or subcritical GaltonWatson tree conditio ..."
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Cited by 34 (9 self)
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Let G be a GaltonWatson tree, and for 0 u 1 let G u be the subtree of G obtained by retaining each edge with probability u. We study the treevalued Markov process (G u ; 0 u 1) and an analogous process (G u ; 0 u 1) in which G 1 is a critical or subcritical GaltonWatson tree conditioned to be infinite. Results simplify and are further developed in the special case of Poisson() offspring distribution. Running head. Treevalued Markov chains. Key words. Borel distribution, branching process, conditioning, GaltonWatson process, generalized Poisson distribution, htransform, pruning, random tree, sizebiasing, spinal decomposition, thinning. AMS Subject classifications 05C80, 60C05, 60J27, 60J80 Research supported in part by N.S.F. Grants DMS9404345 and 9622859 1 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Related topics : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2 Background and technical setup 5 2.1 Notation and terminology for trees : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :...
Limit Distributions and Random Trees Derived From the Birthday Problem With Unequal Probabilities
, 1998
"... Given an arbitrary distribution on a countable set S consider the number of independent samples required until the first repeated value is seen. Exact and asymptotic formulae are derived for the distribution of this time and of the times until subsequent repeats. Asymptotic properties of the repeat ..."
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Cited by 26 (14 self)
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Given an arbitrary distribution on a countable set S consider the number of independent samples required until the first repeated value is seen. Exact and asymptotic formulae are derived for the distribution of this time and of the times until subsequent repeats. Asymptotic properties of the repeat times are derived by embedding in a Poisson process. In particular, necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence are given and the possible limits explicitly described. Under the same conditions the finite dimensional distributions of the repeat times converge to the arrival times of suitably modified Poisson processes, and random trees derived from the sequence of independent Research supported in part by N.S.F. Grants DMS 9224857, 9404345, 9224868 and 9703691 trials converge in distribution to an inhomogeneous continuum random tree. 1 Introduction Recall the classical birthday problem: given that each day of the year is equally likely as a possible birthday, and that birth...
Inhomogeneous Continuum Random Trees and the Entrance Boundary of the Additive Coalescent
 PROBAB. TH. REL. FIELDS
, 1998
"... Regard an element of the set of ranked discrete distributions \Delta := f(x 1 ; x 2 ; : : :) : x 1 x 2 : : : 0; P i x i = 1g as a fragmentation of unit mass into clusters of masses x i . The additive coalescent is the \Deltavalued Markov process in which pairs of clusters of masses fx i ; ..."
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Cited by 18 (13 self)
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Regard an element of the set of ranked discrete distributions \Delta := f(x 1 ; x 2 ; : : :) : x 1 x 2 : : : 0; P i x i = 1g as a fragmentation of unit mass into clusters of masses x i . The additive coalescent is the \Deltavalued Markov process in which pairs of clusters of masses fx i ; x j g merge into a cluster of mass x i + x j at rate x i + x j . Aldous and Pitman (1998) showed that a version of this process starting from time \Gamma1 with infinitesimally small clusters can be constructed from the Brownian continuum random tree of Aldous (1991,1993) by Poisson splitting along the skeleton of the tree. In this paper it is shown that the general such process may be constructed analogously from a new family of inhomogeneous continuum random trees.
AbelCayleyHurwitz multinomial expansions associated with random mappings, forests, and subsets
, 1998
"... Extensions of binomial and multinomial formulae due to Abel, Cayley and Hurwitz are related to the probability distributions of various random subsets, trees, forests, and mappings. For instance, an extension of Hurwitz's binomial formula is associated with the probability distribution of the random ..."
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Cited by 13 (12 self)
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Extensions of binomial and multinomial formulae due to Abel, Cayley and Hurwitz are related to the probability distributions of various random subsets, trees, forests, and mappings. For instance, an extension of Hurwitz's binomial formula is associated with the probability distribution of the random set of vertices of a fringe subtree in a random forest whose distribution is defined by terms of a multinomial expansion over rooted labeled forests which generalizes Cayley's expansion over unrooted labeled trees. Contents 1 Introduction 2 Research supported in part by N.S.F. Grant DMS9703961 2 Probabilistic Interpretations 5 3 Cayley's multinomial expansion 11 4 Random Mappings 14 4.1 Mappings from S to S : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 4.2 The random set of cyclic points : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18 5 Random Forests 19 5.1 Distribution of the roots of a pforest : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 19 5.2 Conditioning on the set...
Random mappings, forests, and subsets associated with AbelCayleyHurwitz multinomial expansions
, 2001
"... Various random combinatorial objects, such as mappings, trees, forests, and subsets of a finite set, are constructed with probability distributions related to the binomial and multinomial expansions due to Abel, Cayley and Hurwitz. Relations between these combinatorial objects, such as Joyal's b ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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Various random combinatorial objects, such as mappings, trees, forests, and subsets of a finite set, are constructed with probability distributions related to the binomial and multinomial expansions due to Abel, Cayley and Hurwitz. Relations between these combinatorial objects, such as Joyal's bijection between mappings and marked rooted trees, have interesting probabilistic interpretations, and applications to the asymptotic structure of large random trees and mappings. An extension of Hurwitz's binomial formula is associated with the probability distribution of the random set of vertices of a fringe subtree in a random forest whose distribution is defined by terms of a multinomial expansion over rooted labeled forests. Research supported in part by N.S.F. Grants DMS 9703961 and DMS0071448 1 Contents 1