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309
Markov Logic Networks
 Machine Learning
, 2006
"... Abstract. We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects ..."
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Cited by 569 (34 self)
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Abstract. We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the domain, it specifies a ground Markov network containing one feature for each possible grounding of a firstorder formula in the KB, with the corresponding weight. Inference in MLNs is performed by MCMC over the minimal subset of the ground network required for answering the query. Weights are efficiently learned from relational databases by iteratively optimizing a pseudolikelihood measure. Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a realworld database and knowledge base in a university domain illustrate the promise of this approach.
An Analysis of FirstOrder Logics of Probability
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1990
"... : We consider two approaches to giving semantics to firstorder logics of probability. The first approach puts a probability on the domain, and is appropriate for giving semantics to formulas involving statistical information such as "The probability that a randomly chosen bird flies is greater than ..."
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Cited by 272 (18 self)
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: We consider two approaches to giving semantics to firstorder logics of probability. The first approach puts a probability on the domain, and is appropriate for giving semantics to formulas involving statistical information such as "The probability that a randomly chosen bird flies is greater than .9." The second approach puts a probability on possible worlds, and is appropriate for giving semantics to formulas describing degrees of belief, such as "The probability that Tweety (a particular bird) flies is greater than .9." We show that the two approaches can be easily combined, allowing us to reason in a straightforward way about statistical information and degrees of belief. We then consider axiomatizing these logics. In general, it can be shown that no complete axiomatization is possible. We provide axiom systems that are sound and complete in cases where a complete axiomatization is possible, showing that they do allow us to capture a great deal of interesting reasoning about prob...
Evaluation of an Inference NetworkBased Retrieval Model
 ACM Transactions on Information Systems
, 1991
"... The use of inference networks to support document retrieval is introduced. A networkbased retrieval model is described and compared to conventional probabilistic and Boolean models. The performance of a retrieval system based on the inference network model is evaluated and compared to performance w ..."
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Cited by 229 (20 self)
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The use of inference networks to support document retrieval is introduced. A networkbased retrieval model is described and compared to conventional probabilistic and Boolean models. The performance of a retrieval system based on the inference network model is evaluated and compared to performance with conventional retrieval models,
On the Hardness of Approximate Reasoning
, 1996
"... Many AI problems, when formalized, reduce to evaluating the probability that a propositional expression is true. In this paper we show that this problem is computationally intractable even in surprisingly restricted cases and even if we settle for an approximation to this probability. We consider va ..."
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Cited by 219 (13 self)
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Many AI problems, when formalized, reduce to evaluating the probability that a propositional expression is true. In this paper we show that this problem is computationally intractable even in surprisingly restricted cases and even if we settle for an approximation to this probability. We consider various methods used in approximate reasoning such as computing degree of belief and Bayesian belief networks, as well as reasoning techniques such as constraint satisfaction and knowledge compilation, that use approximation to avoid computational difficulties, and reduce them to modelcounting problems over a propositional domain. We prove that counting satisfying assignments of propositional languages is intractable even for Horn and monotone formulae, and even when the size of clauses and number of occurrences of the variables are extremely limited. This should be contrasted with the case of deductive reasoning, where Horn theories and theories with binary clauses are distinguished by the e...
A Logic for Reasoning about Probabilities
 Information and Computation
, 1990
"... We consider a language for reasoning about probability which allows us to make statements such as “the probability of E, is less than f ” and “the probability of E, is at least twice the probability of E,, ” where E, and EZ are arbitrary events. We consider the case where all events are measurable ( ..."
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Cited by 214 (19 self)
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We consider a language for reasoning about probability which allows us to make statements such as “the probability of E, is less than f ” and “the probability of E, is at least twice the probability of E,, ” where E, and EZ are arbitrary events. We consider the case where all events are measurable (i.e., represent measurable sets) and the more general case, which is also of interest in practice, where they may not be measurable. The measurable case is essentially a formalization of (the propositional fragment of) Nilsson’s probabilistic logic. As we show elsewhere, the general (nonmeasurable) case corresponds precisely to replacing probability measures by DempsterShafer belief functions. In both cases, we provide a complete axiomatization and show that the problem of deciding satistiability is NPcomplete, no worse than that of propositional logic. As a tool for proving our complete axiomatizations, we give a complete axiomatization for reasoning about Boolean combinations of linear inequalities, which is of independent interest. This proof and others make crucial use of results from the theory of linear programming. We then extend the language to allow reasoning about conditional probability and show that the resulting logic is decidable and completely axiomatizable, by making use of the theory of real closed fields. ( 1990 Academic Press. Inc 1.
Planning Under Time Constraints in Stochastic Domains
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1993
"... We provide a method, based on the theory of Markov decision processes, for efficient planning in stochastic domains. Goals are encoded as reward functions, expressing the desirability of each world state; the planner must find a policy (mapping from states to actions) that maximizes future reward ..."
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Cited by 162 (19 self)
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We provide a method, based on the theory of Markov decision processes, for efficient planning in stochastic domains. Goals are encoded as reward functions, expressing the desirability of each world state; the planner must find a policy (mapping from states to actions) that maximizes future rewards. Standard goals of achievement, as well as goals of maintenance and prioritized combinations of goals, can be specified in this way. An optimal policy can be found using existing methods, but these methods require time at best polynomial in the number of states in the domain, where the number of states is exponential in the number of propositions (or state variables). By using information about the starting state, the reward function, and the transition probabilities of the domain, we restrict the planner's attention to a set of world states that are likely to be encountered in satisfying the goal. Using this restricted set of states, the planner can generate more or less complete ...
Reasoning about Knowledge and Probability
 Journal of the ACM
, 1994
"... : We provide a model for reasoning about knowledge and probability together. We allow explicit mention of probabilities in formulas, so that our language has formulas that essentially say "according to agent i, formula ' holds with probability at least b." The language is powerful enough to allow r ..."
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Cited by 156 (15 self)
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: We provide a model for reasoning about knowledge and probability together. We allow explicit mention of probabilities in formulas, so that our language has formulas that essentially say "according to agent i, formula ' holds with probability at least b." The language is powerful enough to allow reasoning about higherorder probabilities, as well as allowing explicit comparisons of the probabilities an agent places on distinct events. We present a general framework for interpreting such formulas, and consider various properties that might hold of the interrelationship between agents' probability assignments at different states. We provide a complete axiomatization for reasoning about knowledge and probability, prove a small model property, and obtain decision procedures. We then consider the effects of adding common knowledge and a probabilistic variant of common knowledge to the language. A preliminary version of this paper appeared in the Proceedings of the Second Conference on T...
Modelling a PublicKey Infrastructure
, 1996
"... A global publickey infrastructure (PKI), components of which are emerging in the near future, is a prerequisite for security in distributed systems and for electronic commerce. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to modelling and reasoning about a PKI from a user Alice's point ..."
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Cited by 141 (2 self)
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A global publickey infrastructure (PKI), components of which are emerging in the near future, is a prerequisite for security in distributed systems and for electronic commerce. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to modelling and reasoning about a PKI from a user Alice's point of view. Her view, from which she draws conclusions about the authenticity of other entities' public keys and possibly about the trustworthiness of other entities, consists of statements about which public keys she believes to be authentic and which entities she believes to be trustworthy, as well as a collection of certificates and recommendations obtained or retrieved from the PKI. The model takes into account recommendations for the trustworthiness of entities. Furthermore, it includes confidence values for statements and can exploit arbitrary certification structures containing multiple intersecting certification paths to achieve a higher confidence value than for any single c...
Probabilistic Logic Programming
, 1992
"... Of all scientific investigations into reasoning with uncertainty and chance, probability theory is perhaps the best understood paradigm. Nevertheless, all studies conducted thus far into the semantics of quantitative logic programming (cf. van Emden [51], Fitting [18, 19, 20], Blair and Subrahmanian ..."
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Cited by 131 (7 self)
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Of all scientific investigations into reasoning with uncertainty and chance, probability theory is perhaps the best understood paradigm. Nevertheless, all studies conducted thus far into the semantics of quantitative logic programming (cf. van Emden [51], Fitting [18, 19, 20], Blair and Subrahmanian [5, 6, 49, 50], Kifer et al [29, 30, 31]) have restricted themselves to nonprobabilistic semantical characterizations. In this paper, we take a few steps towards rectifying this situation. We define a logic programming language that is syntactically similar to the annotated logics of [5, 6], but in which the truth values are interpreted probabilistically. A probabilistic model theory and fixpoint theory is developed for such programs. This probabilistic model theory satisfies the requirements proposed by Fenstad [16] for a function to be called probabilistic. The logical treatment of probabilities is complicated by two facts: first, that the connectives cannot be interpreted truth function...