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Type systems
 The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook
, 1997
"... This paper presents an overview of the programming language Modula3, and a more detailed description of its type system. 1 ..."
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Cited by 200 (1 self)
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This paper presents an overview of the programming language Modula3, and a more detailed description of its type system. 1
Soft Typing
, 1991
"... This paper presents a soft type systems that retains the expressiveness of dynamic typing, but offers the early error detection and improved optimization capabilities of static typing. The key idea underlying soft typing is that a type checker need not reject programs containing "illtyped" phrases. ..."
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Cited by 192 (2 self)
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This paper presents a soft type systems that retains the expressiveness of dynamic typing, but offers the early error detection and improved optimization capabilities of static typing. The key idea underlying soft typing is that a type checker need not reject programs containing "illtyped" phrases. Instead, the type checker can insert explicit runtime checks, transforming "illtyped" programs into typecorrect ones.
Operations on records
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1991
"... We define a simple collection of operations for creating and manipulating record structures, where records are intended as finite associations of values to labels. A secondorder type system over these operations supports both subtyping and polymorphism. We provide typechecking algorithms and limite ..."
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Cited by 141 (13 self)
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We define a simple collection of operations for creating and manipulating record structures, where records are intended as finite associations of values to labels. A secondorder type system over these operations supports both subtyping and polymorphism. We provide typechecking algorithms and limited semantic models. Our approach unifies and extends previous notions of records, bounded quantification, record extension, and parametrization by rowvariables. The general aim is to provide foundations for concepts found in objectoriented languages, within a framework based on typed lambdacalculus.
Efficient Type Inference for HigherOrder BindingTime Analysis
 In Functional Programming and Computer Architecture
, 1991
"... Bindingtime analysis determines when variables and expressions in a program can be bound to their values, distinguishing between early (compiletime) and late (runtime) binding. Bindingtime information can be used by compilers to produce more efficient target programs by partially evaluating prog ..."
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Cited by 91 (4 self)
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Bindingtime analysis determines when variables and expressions in a program can be bound to their values, distinguishing between early (compiletime) and late (runtime) binding. Bindingtime information can be used by compilers to produce more efficient target programs by partially evaluating programs at compiletime. Bindingtime analysis has been formulated in abstract interpretation contexts and more recently in a typetheoretic setting. In a typetheoretic setting bindingtime analysis is a type inference problem: the problem of inferring a completion of a λterm e with bindingtime annotations such that e satisfies the typing rules. Nielson and Nielson and Schmidt have shown that every simply typed λterm has a unique completion ê that minimizes late binding in TML, a monomorphic type system with explicit bindingtime annotations, and they present exponential time algorithms for computing such minimal completions. 1 Gomard proves the same results for a variant of his twolevel λcalculus without a socalled “lifting ” rule. He presents another algorithm for inferring completions in this somewhat restricted type system and states that it can be implemented in time O(n 3). He conjectures that the completions computed are minimal.
Is there a use for linear logic?
, 1991
"... Past attempts to apply Girard's linear logic have either had a clear relation to the theory (Lafont, Holmstrom, Abramsky) or a clear practical value (Guzm'an and Hudak, Wadler), but not both. This paper defines a sequence of languages based on linear logic that span the gap between theory and practi ..."
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Cited by 88 (7 self)
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Past attempts to apply Girard's linear logic have either had a clear relation to the theory (Lafont, Holmstrom, Abramsky) or a clear practical value (Guzm'an and Hudak, Wadler), but not both. This paper defines a sequence of languages based on linear logic that span the gap between theory and practice. Type reconstruction in a linear type system can derive information about sharing. An approach to linear type reconstruction based on use types is presented. Applications to the array update problem are considered.
System F with type equality coercions
, 2007
"... We introduce System FC, which extends System F with support for nonsyntactic type equality. There are two main extensions: (i) explicit witnesses for type equalities, and (ii) open, nonparametric type functions, given meaning by toplevel equality axioms. Unlike System F, FC is expressive enough to ..."
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Cited by 75 (25 self)
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We introduce System FC, which extends System F with support for nonsyntactic type equality. There are two main extensions: (i) explicit witnesses for type equalities, and (ii) open, nonparametric type functions, given meaning by toplevel equality axioms. Unlike System F, FC is expressive enough to serve as a target for several different sourcelanguage features, including Haskell’s newtype, generalised algebraic data types, associated types, functional dependencies, and perhaps more besides.
Type Inference for Records in a Natural Extension of ML
 Theoretical Aspects of ObjectOriented Programming: Types, Semantics, and Language Design
, 1994
"... We describe an extension of ML with records where inheritance is given by ML generic polymorphism. All common operations on records but concatenation are supported, in particular the free extension of records. Other operations such as renaming of fields are added. The solution relies on an extension ..."
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Cited by 73 (7 self)
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We describe an extension of ML with records where inheritance is given by ML generic polymorphism. All common operations on records but concatenation are supported, in particular the free extension of records. Other operations such as renaming of fields are added. The solution relies on an extension of ML, where the language of types is sorted and considered modulo equations, and on a record extension of types. The solution is simple and modular and the type inference algorithm is efficient in practice.
Simplifying Subtyping Constraints
 In Proceedings of the 1996 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming
, 1996
"... This paper studies type inference for a functional, MLstyle language with subtyping, and focuses on the issue of simplifying inferred constraint sets. We propose a powerful notion of entailment between constraint sets, as well as an algorithm to check it, which we prove to be sound. The algorithm, ..."
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Cited by 67 (1 self)
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This paper studies type inference for a functional, MLstyle language with subtyping, and focuses on the issue of simplifying inferred constraint sets. We propose a powerful notion of entailment between constraint sets, as well as an algorithm to check it, which we prove to be sound. The algorithm, although very powerful in practice, is not complete. We also introduce two new typing rules which allow simplifying constraint sets. These rules give very good practical results. 1 Introduction The concept of subtyping has been introduced by Cardelli [4] and by Mitchell [9]. It is of great importance in many record and object calculi. Subtyping has been extensively studied in the case of explicitly typed programs; MLstyle type inference in the presence of subtyping is less understood. Fuh and Mishra [7] have studied type inference in the presence of subtyping and polymorphism. However, they consider only structural subtyping, i.e. their subtyping relation is entirely derived from subtyping...
Efficient Inference of Object Types
, 1995
"... Abadi and Cardelli have recently investigated a calculus of objects [2]. The calculus supports a key feature of objectoriented languages: an object can be emulated by another object that has more refined methods. Abadi and Cardelli presented four firstorder type systems for the calculus. The simpl ..."
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Cited by 55 (6 self)
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Abadi and Cardelli have recently investigated a calculus of objects [2]. The calculus supports a key feature of objectoriented languages: an object can be emulated by another object that has more refined methods. Abadi and Cardelli presented four firstorder type systems for the calculus. The simplest one is based on finite types and no subtyping, and the most powerful one has both recursive types and subtyping. Open until now is the question of type inference, and in the presence of subtyping "the absence of minimum typings poses practical problems for type inference" [2]. In this paper...
Objective ML: An effective objectoriented extension to ML
 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OBJECT SYSTEMS
, 1998
"... Objective ML is a small practical extension to ML with objects and top level classes. It is fully compatible with ML; its type system is based on ML polymorphism, record types with polymorphic access, and a better treatment of type abbreviations. Objective ML allows for most features of objectorien ..."
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Cited by 55 (4 self)
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Objective ML is a small practical extension to ML with objects and top level classes. It is fully compatible with ML; its type system is based on ML polymorphism, record types with polymorphic access, and a better treatment of type abbreviations. Objective ML allows for most features of objectoriented languages including multiple inheritance, methods returning self and binary methods as well as parametric classes. This demonstrates that objects can be added to strongly typed languages based on ML polymorphism.