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Handbook of Genetic Algorithms
 Van Nostrand Reinhold
, 1991
"... Mimicking biological evolution and harnessing its power for adaptation are problems that have intrigued computer scientists for at least four decades. Genetic algorithms (GAs), invented by John Holland in the 1960s, are the most widely used approaches to computational evolution. In his book Adaptati ..."
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Cited by 1164 (0 self)
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Mimicking biological evolution and harnessing its power for adaptation are problems that have intrigued computer scientists for at least four decades. Genetic algorithms (GAs), invented by John Holland in the 1960s, are the most widely used approaches to computational evolution. In his book Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (Holland, 1992, also reviewed in this issue), Holland presented GAs in a general theoretical framework for adaptation in nature. Holland’s motivation was largely scientific — he was attempting to understand and link diverse types of natural phenomena—but he also proposed potential engineering applications of GAs. Since the publication of Holland’s book, the field of GAs has grown into a significant subarea of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Nowadays one can find several international conferences each year as well as a number of journals devoted to GAs and other “evolutionary computation ” approaches. Research on GAs has spread from computer science to engineering and, more recently, to fields such as molecular biology, immunology, economics, and physics. One result of this growth in interest has been a division of the field of GAs into several subspecies. One major division is between research on GAs as engineering tools and research
No Free Lunch Theorems for Optimization
, 1997
"... A framework is developed to explore the connection between effective optimization algorithms and the problems they are solving. A number of “no free lunch ” (NFL) theorems are presented which establish that for any algorithm, any elevated performance over one class of problems is offset by performan ..."
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Cited by 640 (9 self)
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A framework is developed to explore the connection between effective optimization algorithms and the problems they are solving. A number of “no free lunch ” (NFL) theorems are presented which establish that for any algorithm, any elevated performance over one class of problems is offset by performance over another class. These theorems result in a geometric interpretation of what it means for an algorithm to be well suited to an optimization problem. Applications of the NFL theorems to informationtheoretic aspects of optimization and benchmark measures of performance are also presented. Other issues addressed include timevarying optimization problems and a priori “headtohead” minimax distinctions between optimization algorithms, distinctions that result despite the NFL theorems’ enforcing of a type of uniformity over all algorithms.
Tabu Search
 Part I,” ORSA Journal on Computing
, 1989
"... Faced with the challenge of solving hard optimization problems that abound in the real world, classical methods often encounter great difficulty. Vitally important applications in business, engineering, economics and science cannot be tackled with any reasonable hope of success, within practical tim ..."
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Cited by 591 (38 self)
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Faced with the challenge of solving hard optimization problems that abound in the real world, classical methods often encounter great difficulty. Vitally important applications in business, engineering, economics and science cannot be tackled with any reasonable hope of success, within practical time horizons, by solution methods that have been the predominant focus of academic research throughout the past three decades (and which are still the focus of many textbooks). The metaheuristic approach called tabu search (TS) is dramatically changing our ability to solve problems of practical significance. Current applications of TS span the realms of resource planning, telecommunications, VLSI design, financial analysis, scheduling, space planning, energy distribution, molecular engineering, logistics, pattern classification, flexible manufacturing, waste management, mineral exploration, biomedical analysis, environmental conservation and scores of others. In recent years, journals in a wide variety of fields have published tutorial articles and computational studies documenting successes by tabu search in extending the frontier of problems that can be handled effectively — yielding solutions whose quality often significantly surpasses that obtained by methods previously applied. Table 1.1 gives a partial catalog of example applications. A more comprehensive list, including summary descriptions of gains achieved from practical implementations, can be found in Glover and Laguna, 1997. Recent TS developments and applications can also be found in the Tabu Search Vignettes section of the web page
Stacked generalization
 Neural Networks
, 1992
"... Abstract: This paper introduces stacked generalization, a scheme for minimizing the generalization error rate of one or more generalizers. Stacked generalization works by deducing the biases of the generalizer(s) with respect to a provided learning set. This deduction proceeds by generalizing in a s ..."
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Cited by 550 (7 self)
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Abstract: This paper introduces stacked generalization, a scheme for minimizing the generalization error rate of one or more generalizers. Stacked generalization works by deducing the biases of the generalizer(s) with respect to a provided learning set. This deduction proceeds by generalizing in a second space whose inputs are (for example) the guesses of the original generalizers when taught with part of the learning set and trying to guess the rest of it, and whose output is (for example) the correct guess. When used with multiple generalizers, stacked generalization can be seen as a more sophisticated version of crossvalidation, exploiting a strategy more sophisticated than crossvalidation’s crude winnertakesall for combining the individual generalizers. When used with a single generalizer, stacked generalization is a scheme for estimating (and then correcting for) the error of a generalizer which has been trained on a particular learning set and then asked a particular question. After introducing stacked generalization and justifying its use, this paper presents two numerical experiments. The first demonstrates how stacked generalization improves upon a set of separate generalizers for the NETtalk task of translating text to phonemes. The second demonstrates how stacked generalization improves the performance of a single surfacefitter. With the other experimental evidence in the literature, the usual arguments supporting crossvalidation, and the abstract justifications presented in this paper, the conclusion is that for almost any realworld generalization problem one should use some version of stacked generalization to minimize the generalization error rate. This paper ends by discussing some of the variations of stacked generalization, and how it touches on other fields like chaos theory. Key Words: generalization and induction, combining generalizers, learning set preprocessing, crossvalidation, error estimation and correction.
Finitetime analysis of the multiarmed bandit problem
 Machine Learning
, 2002
"... Abstract. Reinforcement learning policies face the exploration versus exploitation dilemma, i.e. the search for a balance between exploring the environment to find profitable actions while taking the empirically best action as often as possible. A popular measure of a policy’s success in addressing ..."
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Cited by 398 (13 self)
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Abstract. Reinforcement learning policies face the exploration versus exploitation dilemma, i.e. the search for a balance between exploring the environment to find profitable actions while taking the empirically best action as often as possible. A popular measure of a policy’s success in addressing this dilemma is the regret, that is the loss due to the fact that the globally optimal policy is not followed all the times. One of the simplest examples of the exploration/exploitation dilemma is the multiarmed bandit problem. Lai and Robbins were the first ones to show that the regret for this problem has to grow at least logarithmically in the number of plays. Since then, policies which asymptotically achieve this regret have been devised by Lai and Robbins and many others. In this work we show that the optimal logarithmic regret is also achievable uniformly over time, with simple and efficient policies, and for all reward distributions with bounded support. Keywords: bandit problems, adaptive allocation rules, finite horizon regret 1.
The GENITOR Algorithm and Selection Pressure: Why RankBased Allocation of Reproductive Trials is Best
 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
, 1989
"... This paper reports work done over the past three years using rankbased allocation of reproductive trials. New evidence and arguments are presented which suggest that allocating reproductive trials according to rank is superior to fitness proportionate reproduction. Ranking can not only be used to s ..."
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Cited by 329 (12 self)
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This paper reports work done over the past three years using rankbased allocation of reproductive trials. New evidence and arguments are presented which suggest that allocating reproductive trials according to rank is superior to fitness proportionate reproduction. Ranking can not only be used to slow search speed, but also to increase search speed when appropriate. Furthermore, the use of ranking provides a degree of control over selective pressure that is not possible with fitness proportionate reproduction. The use of rankbased allocation of reproductive trials is discussed in the context of 1) Holland's schema theorem, 2) DeJong's standard test suite, and 3) a set of neural net optimization problems that are larger than the problems in the standard test suite. The GENITOR algorithm is also discussed; this algorithm is specifically designed to allocate reproductive trials according to rank.
Ant algorithms for discrete optimization
 ARTIFICIAL LIFE
, 1999
"... This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic ..."
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Cited by 314 (42 self)
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This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic biological findings on real ants are reviewed and their artificial counterparts as well as the ACO metaheuristic are defined. In the second part of the article a number of applications of ACO algorithms to combinatorial optimization and routing in communications networks are described. We conclude with a discussion of related work and of some of the most important aspects of the ACO metaheuristic.
PopulationBased Incremental Learning: A Method for Integrating Genetic Search Based Function Optimization and Competitive Learning
, 1994
"... Genetic algorithms (GAs) are biologically motivated adaptive systems which have been used, with varying degrees of success, for function optimization. In this study, an abstraction of the basic genetic algorithm, the Equilibrium Genetic Algorithm (EGA), and the GA in turn, are reconsidered within th ..."
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Cited by 298 (11 self)
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Genetic algorithms (GAs) are biologically motivated adaptive systems which have been used, with varying degrees of success, for function optimization. In this study, an abstraction of the basic genetic algorithm, the Equilibrium Genetic Algorithm (EGA), and the GA in turn, are reconsidered within the framework of competitive learning. This new perspective reveals a number of different possibilities for performance improvements. This paper explores populationbased incremental learning (PBIL), a method of combining the mechanisms of a generational genetic algorithm with simple competitive learning. The combination of these two methods reveals a tool which is far simpler than a GA, and which outperforms a GA on large set of optimization problems in terms of both speed and accuracy. This paper presents an empirical analysis of where the proposed technique will outperform genetic algorithms, and describes a class of problems in which a genetic algorithm may be able to perform better. Extensions to this algorithm are discussed and analyzed. PBIL and extensions are compared with a standard GA on twelve problems, including standard numerical optimization functions, traditional GA test suite problems, and NPComplete problems.
No Free Lunch Theorems for Search
, 1995
"... We show that all algorithms that search for an extremum of a cost function perform exactly the same, when averaged over all possible cost functions. In particular, if algorithm A outperforms algorithm B on some cost functions, then loosely speaking there must exist exactly as many other functions wh ..."
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Cited by 239 (2 self)
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We show that all algorithms that search for an extremum of a cost function perform exactly the same, when averaged over all possible cost functions. In particular, if algorithm A outperforms algorithm B on some cost functions, then loosely speaking there must exist exactly as many other functions where B outperforms A. Starting from this we analyze a number of the other a priori characteristics of the search problem, like its geometry and its informationtheoretic aspects. This analysis allows us to derive mathematical benchmarks for assessing a particular search algorithm 's performance. We also investigate minimax aspects of the search problem, the validity of using characteristics of a partial search over a cost function to predict future behavior of the search algorithm on that cost function, and timevarying cost functions. We conclude with some discussion of the justifiability of biologicallyinspired search methods.