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181
Data Clustering: A Review
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exp ..."
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Cited by 1282 (13 self)
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Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult problem combinatorially, and differences in assumptions and contexts in different communities has made the transfer of useful generic concepts and methodologies slow to occur. This paper presents an overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners. We present a taxonomy of clustering techniques, and identify crosscutting themes and recent advances. We also describe some important applications of clustering algorithms such as image segmentation, object recognition, and information retrieval.
Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This ..."
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Cited by 191 (1 self)
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Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods and to design improved niching methods. To achieve this purpose, it first develops a general framework for the modelling of niching methods, and then applies this framework to construct models of individual niching methods, specifically crowding and sharing methods. Using a constructed model of crowding, this study determines why crowding methods over the last two decades have not made effective niching methods. A series of tests and design modifications results in the development of a highly effective form of crowding, called determin...
Simulated Binary Crossover for Continuous Search Space
, 1994
"... The success of binarycoded genetic algorithms (GAs) in problems having discrete search space largely depends on the coding used to represent the problem variables and on the crossover operator that propagates buildingblocks from parent strings to children strings. In solving optimization problems ..."
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Cited by 125 (26 self)
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The success of binarycoded genetic algorithms (GAs) in problems having discrete search space largely depends on the coding used to represent the problem variables and on the crossover operator that propagates buildingblocks from parent strings to children strings. In solving optimization problems having continuous search space, binarycoded GAs discretize the search space by using a coding of the problem variables in binary strings. However, the coding of realvalued variables in finitelength strings causes a number of difficultiesinability to achieve arbitrary precision in the obtained solution, fixed mapping of problem variables, inherent Hamming cliff problem associated with the binary coding, and processing of Holland's schemata in continuous search space. Although, a number of realcoded GAs are developed to solve optimization problems having a continuous search space, the search powers of these crossover operators are not adequate. In this paper, the search power of a cross...
Construction of Bayesian Network Structures From Data: A Brief Survey and an Efficient Algorithm
, 1995
"... Previous algorithms for the recovery of Bayesian belief network structures from data have been either highly dependent on conditional independence (CI) tests, or have required on ordering on the nodes to be supplied by the user. We present an algorithm that integrates these two approaches: CI tests ..."
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Cited by 77 (8 self)
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Previous algorithms for the recovery of Bayesian belief network structures from data have been either highly dependent on conditional independence (CI) tests, or have required on ordering on the nodes to be supplied by the user. We present an algorithm that integrates these two approaches: CI tests are used to generate an ordering on the nodes from the database, which is then used to recover the underlying Bayesian network structure using a nonCltestbased method. Results of the evaluation of the algorithm on a number of databases (e.g., ALARM, LED, and SOYBEAN) are presented. We also discuss some algorithm performance issues and open problems.
Parallel Recombinative Simulated Annealing: A Genetic Algorithm
, 1995
"... This paper introduces and analyzes a parallel method of simulated annealing. Borrowing from genetic algorithms, an effective combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms, called parallel recombinative simulated annealing, is developed. This new algorithm strives to retain the desirable ..."
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Cited by 74 (3 self)
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This paper introduces and analyzes a parallel method of simulated annealing. Borrowing from genetic algorithms, an effective combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms, called parallel recombinative simulated annealing, is developed. This new algorithm strives to retain the desirable asymptotic convergence properties of simulated annealing, while adding the populations approach and recombinative power of genetic algorithms. The algorithm iterates a population of solutions rather than a single solution, employing a binary recombination operator as well as a unary neighborhood operator. Proofs of global convergence are given for two variations of the algorithm. Convergence behavior is examined, and empirical distributions are compared to Boltzmann distributions. Parallel recombinative simulated annealing is amenable to straightforward implementation on SIMD, MIMD, or sharedmemory machines. The algorithm, implemented on the CM5, is run repeatedly on two deceptive problems...
Needed: An Empirical Science Of Algorithms
 Operations Research
, 1994
"... this article goes to press. Journal editors can be encouraged to seek out referees who have done rigorous empirical studies. Refereeing standards will evolve, particularly as the empirical science develops. ..."
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Cited by 73 (3 self)
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this article goes to press. Journal editors can be encouraged to seek out referees who have done rigorous empirical studies. Refereeing standards will evolve, particularly as the empirical science develops.
A bayesian framework for word segmentation: Exploring the effects of context
 In 46th Annual Meeting of the ACL
, 2009
"... Since the experiments of Saffran et al. (1996a), there has been a great deal of interest in the question of how statistical regularities in the speech stream might be used by infants to begin to identify individual words. In this work, we use computational modeling to explore the effects of differen ..."
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Cited by 50 (11 self)
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Since the experiments of Saffran et al. (1996a), there has been a great deal of interest in the question of how statistical regularities in the speech stream might be used by infants to begin to identify individual words. In this work, we use computational modeling to explore the effects of different assumptions the learner might make regarding the nature of words – in particular, how these assumptions affect the kinds of words that are segmented from a corpus of transcribed childdirected speech. We develop several models within a Bayesian ideal observer framework, and use them to examine the consequences of assuming either that words are independent units, or units that help to predict other units. We show through empirical and theoretical results that the assumption of independence causes the learner to undersegment the corpus, with many two and threeword sequences (e.g. what’s that, do you, in the house) misidentified as individual words. In contrast, when the learner assumes that words are predictive, the resulting segmentation is far more accurate. These results indicate that taking context into account is important for a statistical word segmentation strategy to be successful, and raise the possibility that even young infants may be able to exploit more subtle statistical patterns than have usually been considered. 1
Generalized information potential criterion for adaptive system training
 IEEE Trans. Neural Networks
, 2002
"... Abstract—We have recently proposed the quadratic Renyi’s error entropy as an alternative cost function for supervised adaptive system training. An entropy criterion instructs the minimization of the average information content of the error signal rather than merely trying to minimize its energy. In ..."
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Cited by 25 (13 self)
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Abstract—We have recently proposed the quadratic Renyi’s error entropy as an alternative cost function for supervised adaptive system training. An entropy criterion instructs the minimization of the average information content of the error signal rather than merely trying to minimize its energy. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the error entropy criterion that enables the use of any order of Renyi’s entropy and any suitable kernel function in density estimation. It is shown that the proposed entropy estimator preserves the global minimum of actual entropy. The equivalence between global optimization by convolution smoothing and the convolution by the kernel in Parzen windowing is also discussed. Simulation results are presented for timeseries prediction and classification where experimental demonstration of all the theoretical concepts is presented. Index Terms—Minimum error entropy, Parzen windowing, Renyi’s entropy, supervised training.
Ant Colony Optimization: An Overview
 Essays and Surveys in Metaheuristics
, 1999
"... . Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a class of constructive metaheuristic algorithms sharing the common approach of constructing a solution on the basis of information provided both by a standard constructive heuristic and by previously constructed solutions. This tutorial is composed of three parts. ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a class of constructive metaheuristic algorithms sharing the common approach of constructing a solution on the basis of information provided both by a standard constructive heuristic and by previously constructed solutions. This tutorial is composed of three parts. The rst one frames the ACO approach in current trends of research on metaheuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization; the second outlines current research within the ACO framework, reporting recent results obtained on dierent problems, while the third part focuses on a particular research line, the ANTS metaheuristic, providing some details on the algorithm and presenting results recently obtained on the quadratic and on the frequency assignment problems. 1. Introduction Complex societal systems pose a lot of problems of combinatorial nature. Trucks have to be routed, depots or sale points have to be located, communication networks have to be designed, containers have to be lled...