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15
Natural 3valued logics: Characterization and proof theory
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1991
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Representing Uncertainty in Simple Planners
 In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
, 1994
"... In this paper, we present an analysis of planning with uncertain information regarding both the state of the world and the effects of actions using a Strips or (propositional) Adlstyle representation [4, 17]. We provide formal definitions of plans under incomplete information and conditional ..."
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In this paper, we present an analysis of planning with uncertain information regarding both the state of the world and the effects of actions using a Strips or (propositional) Adlstyle representation [4, 17]. We provide formal definitions of plans under incomplete information and conditional plans, and describe Plinth, a conditional linear planner based on these definitions. We also clarify the definition of the term "conditional action, " which has been variously used to denote actions with contextdependent effects and actions with uncertain outcomes. We show that the latter can, in theory, be viewed as a special case of the former but that to do so requires one to sacrifice the simple, singlemodel representation for one which can distinguish between a proposition and beliefs about that proposition. 1
Logic engineering in medicine
 The Knowledge Engineering Review
, 1995
"... The safetycritical nature of the application of knowledgebased systems to the field of medicine, demands the adoption of reliable engineering principles with a solid foundation for their construction. Logical languages with their inherent, precise notions of consistency, soundness and completeness ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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The safetycritical nature of the application of knowledgebased systems to the field of medicine, demands the adoption of reliable engineering principles with a solid foundation for their construction. Logical languages with their inherent, precise notions of consistency, soundness and completeness offer such a foundation, thus promoting scrutinous engineering of medical knowledge. Moreover, logic techniques provide a powerful means for getting insight into the structure and meaning of medical knowledge used in medical problem solving. Unfortunately, logic is currently only used on a small scale for building practical medical knowledgebased systems. In this paper, the various approaches proposed in the literature are reviewed, and related to different types of knowledge and problem solving employed in the medical field. The appropriateness of logic for building medical knowledgebased expert systems is further motivated.
Toward a Model Theory of Actions: How Agents do it in Branching Time
 Computational Intelligence
, 1998
"... A clear understanding and formalization of actions is essential to computing, and especially so to reasoning about and constructing intelligent agents. Several approaches have been proposed over the years. However, most approaches concentrate on the causes and effects of actions, but do not give gen ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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A clear understanding and formalization of actions is essential to computing, and especially so to reasoning about and constructing intelligent agents. Several approaches have been proposed over the years. However, most approaches concentrate on the causes and effects of actions, but do not give general characterizations of actions themselves. A useful formalization of actions would be based on a general, possibly nondiscrete, model of time that allows branching (to capture agents' choices). A desirable formalization would also allow actions to be of arbitrary duration and would permit multiple agents to act concurrently. We develop a branchingtime framework that allows great flexibility in how time and action are modeled. We motivate and formalize several coherence constraints on our models, which capture some nice intuitions and validate some useful inferences relating actions with time. 1 Introduction Over the years, actions and time have garnered much research attent...
Heuristic Reasoning and Relative Incompleteness
, 1992
"... In this paper an approach is presented in which heurkstic reasoning is interpreted as strategic reasoning. This type of reasoning enables one to den’ve which hypothesis to investigate, and which observable information to acquire next (to be able to verify the chosen hypothesis). A compositional arch ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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In this paper an approach is presented in which heurkstic reasoning is interpreted as strategic reasoning. This type of reasoning enables one to den’ve which hypothesis to investigate, and which observable information to acquire next (to be able to verify the chosen hypothesis). A compositional architecture for reasoning systems that perform such heuristic reasoning is introduced, called SIX (for Strategic Interactive expert systems). This compositional architecture enables user interaction at strategic level. It is formally specified in the specification framework DESIRE (DEsign and Specification of Interacting REsoning modules). We show that this reasoning method can adequately be applied to deal with relative incompleteness in domains that have a (layered) empirical basis. A logical analysis of domains is presented making these concepts more precise. A theorem is presented stating that a domain has an empirical basis if and only if a decisive knowledge base is possible. Moreover, a simple criterion is given to test whether or not a domain is empirically founded: implicit definability of hypotheses in terms of observables.
Evaluating Reasoning Systems
, 2006
"... A review of the literature on evaluating reasoning systems reveals that it is a very broad area with wide variation in depth and breadth of research on metrics and tests. Consolidation is hampered by nonstandard terminology, differing methodologies, scattered application domains, unpublished algorit ..."
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A review of the literature on evaluating reasoning systems reveals that it is a very broad area with wide variation in depth and breadth of research on metrics and tests. Consolidation is hampered by nonstandard terminology, differing methodologies, scattered application domains, unpublished algorithmic details, and the effects of domain content and context on the choice of metric and tests. The field of information metrology, which applies to reasoning as a kind of information processing, is still emerging from ad hoc experience in evaluating narrow kinds of information systems. This report begins to bring order to the area by categorizing reasoning systems according to their capabilities. The characteristics of each category can be used as a basis for evaluating and testing reasoning systems claiming to be in that category. Capabilities are analyzed along several dimensions, including representation languages, inference, and user and software interfaces. The report groups representation languages by their relation to firstorder logic, and modeltheoretic properties, such as soundness and completeness. Inference procedures are divided into deduction, induction, abduction, and analogical reasoning. Capabilities of user and software interfaces are described as they apply to
Gentzentype Refutation Systems for ThreeValued Logics ⋆
"... Abstract. While the purpose of a conventional proof calculus is to axiomatise the set of valid sentences of a given logic, a refutation system, or complementary calculus, is concerned with axiomatising the invalid sentences. Instead of exhaustively searching for counter models for some sentence, ref ..."
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Abstract. While the purpose of a conventional proof calculus is to axiomatise the set of valid sentences of a given logic, a refutation system, or complementary calculus, is concerned with axiomatising the invalid sentences. Instead of exhaustively searching for counter models for some sentence, refutation systems establish invalidity by deduction and thus in a purely syntactic way. Such systems are relevant not only for prooftheoretic reasons but also for realising deductive systems for nonmonotonic logics. In this paper, we introduce Gentzentype refutation systems for two basic threevalued logics that allow to embed wellknown threevalued logics relevant for AI and logic programming like that of Kleene, Łukasiewicz, Gödel, as well as threevalued paraconsistent logics. As an application of our calculus, we provide derived rules for Gödel’s threevalued logic, allowing to decide strong equivalence of logic programs under the answerset semantics. 1
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"... We describe a general technique for expressing domain knowledge in constraint satisfaction problems, and using it to develop optimized parallel arc consistency algorithms for the solution of problems in the domain. The technique is applied to reduce the space complexity of the the massively parallel ..."
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We describe a general technique for expressing domain knowledge in constraint satisfaction problems, and using it to develop optimized parallel arc consistency algorithms for the solution of problems in the domain. The technique is applied to reduce the space complexity of the the massively parallel AC Chip algorithm. Results of the optimizations are shown for an object recognition domain in which they reduce the complexity of the chip by many orders of magnitude. The technique can be applied analogously to reduce the time complexity of the uniprocessor arc consistency algorithm AC4. 1
Constructing TruthTables in Propositional MultiValued Logics with DERIVE 4 ∗
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