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The primes contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions
 Ann. of Math
"... Abstract. We prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions of primes. ..."
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Cited by 150 (26 self)
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Abstract. We prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions of primes.
Lowdegree tests at large distances
 In Proceedings of the 39th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2007
"... Abstract We define tests of boolean functions which distinguish between linear (or quadratic)polynomials, and functions which are very far, in an appropriate sense, from these polynomials. The tests have optimal or nearly optimal tradeoffs between soundness and thenumber of queries. In particular, ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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Abstract We define tests of boolean functions which distinguish between linear (or quadratic)polynomials, and functions which are very far, in an appropriate sense, from these polynomials. The tests have optimal or nearly optimal tradeoffs between soundness and thenumber of queries. In particular, we show that functions with small Gowers uniformity norms behave "randomly " with respect to hypergraph linearity tests. A central step in our analysis of quadraticity tests is the proof of an inverse theorem forthe third Gowers uniformity norm of boolean functions. The last result has also a coding theory application. It is possible to estimate efficientlythe distance from the secondorder ReedMuller code on inputs lying far beyond its listdecoding radius.
A quantitative ergodic theory proof of Szemerédi’s theorem
, 2004
"... A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that given any density 0 < δ ≤ 1 and any integer k ≥ 3, any set of integers with density δ will contain infinitely many proper arithmetic progressions of length k. For general k there are essentially four known proofs of this fact; Szemerédi’s original combinato ..."
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Cited by 34 (14 self)
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A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that given any density 0 < δ ≤ 1 and any integer k ≥ 3, any set of integers with density δ will contain infinitely many proper arithmetic progressions of length k. For general k there are essentially four known proofs of this fact; Szemerédi’s original combinatorial proof using the Szemerédi regularity lemma and van der Waerden’s theorem, Furstenberg’s proof using ergodic theory, Gowers’ proof using Fourier analysis and the inverse theory of additive combinatorics, and Gowers’ more recent proof using a hypergraph regularity lemma. Of these four, the ergodic theory proof is arguably the shortest, but also the least elementary, requiring in particular the use of transfinite induction (and thus the axiom of choice), decomposing a general ergodic system as the weakly mixing extension of a transfinite tower of compact extensions. Here we present a quantitative, selfcontained version of this ergodic theory proof, and which is “elementary ” in the sense that it does not require the axiom of choice, the use of infinite sets or measures, or the use of the Fourier transform or inverse theorems from additive combinatorics. It also gives explicit (but extremely poor) quantitative bounds.
Norm convergence of multiple ergodic averages for commuting transformations
, 2007
"... Let T1,..., Tl: X → X be commuting measurepreserving transformations on a probability space (X, X, µ). We show that the multiple ergodic averages 1 PN−1 N n=0 f1(T n 1 x)... fl(T n l x) are convergent in L2 (X, X, µ) as N → ∞ for all f1,..., fl ∈ L ∞ (X, X, µ); this was previously established fo ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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Let T1,..., Tl: X → X be commuting measurepreserving transformations on a probability space (X, X, µ). We show that the multiple ergodic averages 1 PN−1 N n=0 f1(T n 1 x)... fl(T n l x) are convergent in L2 (X, X, µ) as N → ∞ for all f1,..., fl ∈ L ∞ (X, X, µ); this was previously established for l = 2 by Conze and Lesigne [2] and for general l assuming some additional ergodicity hypotheses on the maps Ti and TiT −1 j by Frantzikinakis and Kra [3] (with the l = 3 case of this result established earlier in [29]). Our approach is combinatorial and finitary in nature, inspired by recent developments regarding the hypergraph regularity and removal lemmas, although we will not need the full strength of those lemmas. In particular, the l = 2 case of our arguments are a finitary analogue of those in [2].
On exchangeable random variables and the statistics of large graphs and hypergraphs
, 2008
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The dichotomy between structure and randomness, arithmetic progressions, and the primes
"... Abstract. A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that all subsets of the integers with positive upper density will contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. There are many different proofs of this deep theorem, but they are all based on a fundamental dichotomy between structure and randomness ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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Abstract. A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that all subsets of the integers with positive upper density will contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. There are many different proofs of this deep theorem, but they are all based on a fundamental dichotomy between structure and randomness, which in turn leads (roughly speaking) to a decomposition of any object into a structured (lowcomplexity) component and a random (discorrelated) component. Important examples of these types of decompositions include the Furstenberg structure theorem and the Szemerédi regularity lemma. One recent application of this dichotomy is the result of Green and Tao establishing that the prime numbers contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions (despite having density zero in the integers). The power of this dichotomy is evidenced by the fact that the GreenTao theorem requires surprisingly little technology from analytic number theory, relying instead almost exclusively on manifestations of this dichotomy such as Szemerédi’s theorem. In this paper we survey various manifestations of this dichotomy in combinatorics, harmonic analysis, ergodic theory, and number theory. As we hope to emphasize here, the underlying themes in these arguments are remarkably similar even though the contexts are radically different. 1.
The GreenTao Theorem on arithmetic progressions in the primes: an ergodic point of view
, 2005
"... A longstanding and almost folkloric conjecture is that the primes contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. Until recently, the only progress on this conjecture was due to van der Corput, who showed in 1939 that there are infinitely many triples of primes in arithmetic progression. In an a ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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A longstanding and almost folkloric conjecture is that the primes contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. Until recently, the only progress on this conjecture was due to van der Corput, who showed in 1939 that there are infinitely many triples of primes in arithmetic progression. In an amazing fusion of methods from analytic number theory and ergodic theory, Ben Green and Terence Tao showed that for any positive integer k, there exist infinitely many arithmetic progressions of length k consisting only of prime numbers. This is an introduction to some of the ideas in the proof, concentrating on the connections to ergodic theory.
The ergodic and combinatorial approaches to Szemerédi’s theorem
, 2006
"... Abstract. A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that any set of integers of positive upper density will contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. In its full generality, we know of four types of arguments that can prove this theorem: the original combinatorial (and graphtheoretical) approac ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Abstract. A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that any set of integers of positive upper density will contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. In its full generality, we know of four types of arguments that can prove this theorem: the original combinatorial (and graphtheoretical) approach of Szemerédi, the ergodic theory approach of Furstenberg, the Fourieranalytic approach of Gowers, and the hypergraph approach of NagleRödlSchachtSkokan and Gowers. In this lecture series we introduce the first, second and fourth approaches, though we will not delve into the full details of any of them. One of the themes of these lectures is the strong similarity of ideas between these approaches, despite the fact that they initially seem rather different. 1.