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119
A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the la ..."
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Cited by 538 (21 self)
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We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the language semantics. The approach easily extends from polymorphic functional languages to imperative languages that provide references, exceptions, continuations, and similar features. We illustrate the technique with a type soundness theorem for the core of Standard ML, which includes the first type soundness proof for polymorphic exceptions and continuations. 1 Type Soundness Static type systems for programming languages attempt to prevent the occurrence of type errors during execution. A definition of type error depends on a specific language and type system, but always includes the use of a function on arguments for which it is not defined, and the attempted application of a nonfunction. ...
A Practical Soft Type System for Scheme
 In Proceedings of the 1994 ACM Conference on LISP and Functional Programming
, 1993
"... Soft type systems provide the benefits of static type checking for dynamically typed languages without rejecting untypable programs. A soft type checker infers types for variables and expressions and inserts explicit runtime checks to transform untypable programs to typable form. We describe a prac ..."
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Cited by 108 (4 self)
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Soft type systems provide the benefits of static type checking for dynamically typed languages without rejecting untypable programs. A soft type checker infers types for variables and expressions and inserts explicit runtime checks to transform untypable programs to typable form. We describe a practical soft type system for R4RS Scheme. Our type checker uses a representation for types that is expressive, easy to interpret, and supports efficient type inference. Soft Scheme supports all of R4RS Scheme, including procedures of fixed and variable arity, assignment, continuations, and toplevel definitions. Our implementation is available by anonymous FTP. The first author was supported in part by the United States Department of Defense under a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. y The second author was supported by NSF grant CCR9122518 and the Texas Advanced Technology Program under grant 003604014. 1 Introduction Dynamically typed languages like Scheme...
Sound Polymorphic Type Inference for Objects
, 1995
"... A polymorphic, constraintbased type inference algorithm for an objectoriented language is defined. A generalized form of type, polymorphic recursively constrained types, are inferred. These types are expressive enough for typing objects, since they generalize recursive types and Fbounded polymor ..."
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Cited by 107 (9 self)
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A polymorphic, constraintbased type inference algorithm for an objectoriented language is defined. A generalized form of type, polymorphic recursively constrained types, are inferred. These types are expressive enough for typing objects, since they generalize recursive types and Fbounded polymorphism. The wellknown tradeoff between inheritance and subtyping is mitigated by the type inference mechanism. Soundness and completeness of type inference are established. 1 Introduction Type inference, the process of automatically inferring type information from untyped programs, is originally due to Hindley and Milner [16]. These ideas have found their way into some recent innovative programming languages, including Standard ML [17]. The type inference problem for objectoriented languages is a challenging one: even simple objectoriented programs require quite advanced features to be present in the type system. One of the main sources of difficulty lies with binary methods, such as an a...
Simple Imperative Polymorphism
 LISP and Symbolic Computation
, 1995
"... . This paper describes a simple extension of the HindleyMilner polymorphic type discipline to callbyvalue languages that incorporate imperative features like references, exceptions, and continuations. This extension sacrifices the ability to type every purely functional expression that is typable ..."
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Cited by 92 (3 self)
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. This paper describes a simple extension of the HindleyMilner polymorphic type discipline to callbyvalue languages that incorporate imperative features like references, exceptions, and continuations. This extension sacrifices the ability to type every purely functional expression that is typable in the HindleyMilner system. In return, it assigns the same type to functional and imperative implementations of the same abstraction. Hence with a module system that separates specifications from implementations, imperative features can be freely used to implement polymorphic specifications. A study of a number of ML programs shows that the inability to type all HindleyMilner typable expressions seldom impacts realistic programs. Furthermore, most programs that are rendered untypable by the new system can be easily repaired. Keywords: Continuations, functional programming, polymorphism, references, state 1. Polymorphism, Imperative Features, and Modules The HindleyMilner polymorphic ty...
The Marriage of Effects and Monads
, 1998
"... this paper is to marry effects to monads, writing T for a computation that yields a value in and may have effects delimited by oe. Now we have that ( is ..."
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Cited by 92 (4 self)
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this paper is to marry effects to monads, writing T for a computation that yields a value in and may have effects delimited by oe. Now we have that ( is
A Generic Type System for the PiCalculus
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... We propose a general, powerful framework of type systems for the #calculus, and show that we can obtain as its instances a variety of type systems guaranteeing nontrivial properties like deadlockfreedom and racefreedom. A key idea is to express types and type environments as abstract processe ..."
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Cited by 91 (8 self)
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We propose a general, powerful framework of type systems for the #calculus, and show that we can obtain as its instances a variety of type systems guaranteeing nontrivial properties like deadlockfreedom and racefreedom. A key idea is to express types and type environments as abstract processes: We can check various properties of a process by checking the corresponding properties of its type environment. The framework clarifies the essence of recent complex type systems, and it also enables sharing of a large amount of work such as a proof of type preservation, making it easy to develop new type systems.
The Essence of Principal Typings
 In Proc. 29th Intâ€™l Coll. Automata, Languages, and Programming, volume 2380 of LNCS
, 2002
"... Let S be some type system. A typing in S for a typable term M is the collection of all of the information other than M which appears in the final judgement of a proof derivation showing that M is typable. For example, suppose there is a derivation in S ending with the judgement A M : # meanin ..."
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Cited by 86 (12 self)
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Let S be some type system. A typing in S for a typable term M is the collection of all of the information other than M which appears in the final judgement of a proof derivation showing that M is typable. For example, suppose there is a derivation in S ending with the judgement A M : # meaning that M has result type # when assuming the types of free variables are given by A. Then (A, #) is a typing for M .
How the design of JML accommodates both runtime assertion checking and formal verification
 SCIENCE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
, 2003
"... ..."
HigherOrder Concurrent Programs with Finite Communication Topology (Extended Abstract)
, 1994
"... Concurrent ML (CML) is an extension of the functional language Standard ML (SML) with primitives for the dynamic creation of processes and channels and for the communication of values over channels. Because of the powerful abstraction mechanisms the communication topology of a given program may be v ..."
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Cited by 63 (12 self)
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Concurrent ML (CML) is an extension of the functional language Standard ML (SML) with primitives for the dynamic creation of processes and channels and for the communication of values over channels. Because of the powerful abstraction mechanisms the communication topology of a given program may be very complex and therefore an efficient implementation may be facilitated by knowledge of the topology. This paper presents an analysis for determining when a bounded number of processes and channels will be generated. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First we extend a polymorphic type system for SML to deduce not only the type of CML programs but also their communication behaviour expressed as terms in a new process algebra. Next we develop an analysis that given the communication behaviour predicts the number of processes and channels required...
MJ: An imperative core calculus for Java and Java with effects
, 2003
"... In order to study rigorously objectoriented languages such as Java or C , a common practice is to define lightweight fragments, or calculi, which are sufficiently small to facilitate formal proofs of key properties. However many of the current proposals for calculi lack important language features. ..."
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Cited by 62 (8 self)
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In order to study rigorously objectoriented languages such as Java or C , a common practice is to define lightweight fragments, or calculi, which are sufficiently small to facilitate formal proofs of key properties. However many of the current proposals for calculi lack important language features. In this paper we propose Middleweight Java, MJ, as a contender for a minimal imperative core calculus for Java. Whilst compact, MJ models features such as object identity, field assignment, constructor methods and block structure. We define the syntax, type system and operational semantics of MJ, and give a proof of type safety. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of MJ to reason about operational features, we consider a recent proposal of Greenhouse and Boyland to extend Java with an effects system. This effects system is intended to delimit the scope of computational effects within a Java program. We define an extension of MJ with a similar effects system and instrument the operational semantics. We then prove the correctness of the effects system