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72
The Essence of Principal Typings
 In Proc. 29th Int’l Coll. Automata, Languages, and Programming, volume 2380 of LNCS
, 2002
"... Let S be some type system. A typing in S for a typable term M is the collection of all of the information other than M which appears in the final judgement of a proof derivation showing that M is typable. For example, suppose there is a derivation in S ending with the judgement A M : # meanin ..."
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Cited by 86 (12 self)
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Let S be some type system. A typing in S for a typable term M is the collection of all of the information other than M which appears in the final judgement of a proof derivation showing that M is typable. For example, suppose there is a derivation in S ending with the judgement A M : # meaning that M has result type # when assuming the types of free variables are given by A. Then (A, #) is a typing for M .
Subtyping Constrained Types
, 1996
"... A constrained type is a type that comes with a set of subtyping constraints on variables occurring in the type. Constrained type inference systems are a natural generalization of Hindley/Milner type inference to languages with subtyping. This paper develops several subtyping relations on polymorphic ..."
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Cited by 61 (2 self)
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A constrained type is a type that comes with a set of subtyping constraints on variables occurring in the type. Constrained type inference systems are a natural generalization of Hindley/Milner type inference to languages with subtyping. This paper develops several subtyping relations on polymorphic constrained types of a general form that allows recursive constraints and multiple bounds on type variables. We establish a full type abstraction property that equates a novel operational notion of subtyping with a semantic notion based on regular trees. The decidability of this notion of subtyping is open; we present a decidable approximation. Subtyping constrained types has applications to signature matching and to constrained type simplification. The relation will thus be a critical component of any programming language incorporating a constrained typing system. 1 Introduction A constrained type is a type that is additionally constrained by a set of subtyping constraints on the free ty...
A modular, polyvariant, and typebased closure analysis
 In ICFP ’97 [ICFP97
"... We observe that the principal typing property of a type system is the enabling technology for modularity and separate compilation [10]. We use this technology to formulate a modular and polyvariant closure analysis, based on the rank 2 intersection types annotated with controlflow information. Modu ..."
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Cited by 54 (1 self)
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We observe that the principal typing property of a type system is the enabling technology for modularity and separate compilation [10]. We use this technology to formulate a modular and polyvariant closure analysis, based on the rank 2 intersection types annotated with controlflow information. Modularity manifests itself in a syntaxdirected, annotatedtype inference algorithm that can analyse program fragments containing free variables: a principal typing property is used to formalise it. Polyvariance manifests itself in the separation of different behaviours of the same function at its different uses: this is formalised via the rank 2 intersection types. As the rank 2 intersection type discipline types at least all (core) ML programs, our analysis can be used in the separate compilation of such programs. 1
Principality and Decidable Type Inference for FiniteRank Intersection Types
 In Conf. Rec. POPL ’99: 26th ACM Symp. Princ. of Prog. Langs
, 1999
"... Principality of typings is the property that for each typable term, there is a typing from which all other typings are obtained via some set of operations. Type inference is the problem of finding a typing for a given term, if possible. We define an intersection type system which has principal typin ..."
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Cited by 52 (17 self)
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Principality of typings is the property that for each typable term, there is a typing from which all other typings are obtained via some set of operations. Type inference is the problem of finding a typing for a given term, if possible. We define an intersection type system which has principal typings and types exactly the strongly normalizable terms. More interestingly, every finiterank restriction of this system (using Leivant's first notion of rank) has principal typings and also has decidable type inference. This is in contrast to System F where the finite rank restriction for every finite rank at 3 and above has neither principal typings nor decidable type inference. This is also in contrast to earlier presentations of intersection types where the status (decidable or undecidable) of these properties is unknown for the finiterank restrictions at 3 and above. Furthermore, the notion of principal typings for our system involves only one operation, substitution, rather than severa...
Type Error Slicing in Implicitly Typed HigherOrder Languages
, 2004
"... Previous methods have generally identified the location of a type error as a particular program point or the program subtree rooted at that point. We present a new approach that identifies the location of a type error as a set of program points (a slice) all of which are necessary for the type error ..."
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Cited by 45 (3 self)
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Previous methods have generally identified the location of a type error as a particular program point or the program subtree rooted at that point. We present a new approach that identifies the location of a type error as a set of program points (a slice) all of which are necessary for the type error. We identify the criteria of completeness and minimality for type error slices. We discuss the advantages of complete and minimal type error slices over previous methods of presenting type errors. We present and prove the correctness of algorithms for finding complete and minimal type error slices for implicitly typed higherorder languages like Standard ML.
From Polyvariant Flow Information to Intersection and Union Types
 J. FUNCT. PROGRAMMING
, 1998
"... Many polyvariant program analyses have been studied in the 1990s, including kCFA, polymorphic splitting, and the cartesian product algorithm. The idea of polyvariance is to analyze functions more than once and thereby obtain better precision for each call site. In this paper we present an equivalen ..."
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Cited by 41 (7 self)
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Many polyvariant program analyses have been studied in the 1990s, including kCFA, polymorphic splitting, and the cartesian product algorithm. The idea of polyvariance is to analyze functions more than once and thereby obtain better precision for each call site. In this paper we present an equivalence theorem which relates a coinductively defined family of polyvariant ow analyses and a standard type system. The proof embodies a way of understanding polyvariant flow information in terms of union and intersection types, and, conversely, a way of understanding union and intersection types in terms of polyvariant flow information. We use the theorem as basis for a new flowtype system in the spirit of the CIL calculus of Wells, Dimock, Muller, and Turbak, in which types are annotated with flow information. A flowtype system is useful as an interface between a owanalysis algorithm and a program optimizer. Derived systematically via our equivalence theorem, our flowtype system should be a g...
Polymorphic Bytecode: Compositional Compilation for Javalike Languages
 In ACM Symp. on Principles of Programming Languages 2005
, 2005
"... We define compositional compilation as the ability to typecheck source code fragments in isolation, generate corresponding binaries, and link together fragments whose mutual assumptions are satisfied, without reinspecting the code. Even though compositional compilation is a highly desirable feature, ..."
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Cited by 39 (17 self)
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We define compositional compilation as the ability to typecheck source code fragments in isolation, generate corresponding binaries, and link together fragments whose mutual assumptions are satisfied, without reinspecting the code. Even though compositional compilation is a highly desirable feature, in Javalike languages it can hardly be achieved. This is due to the fact that the bytecode generated for a fragment (say, a class) is not uniquely determined by its source code, but also depends on the compilation context.
Assigning Types to Processes
 In LICS 2000
, 2000
"... this paper we propose a finegrained typing system for a higherorder pcalculus which can be used to control the effect of such migrating code on local environments. Processes may be assigned different types depending on their intended use. This is in contrast to most of the previous work on ty ..."
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Cited by 38 (5 self)
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this paper we propose a finegrained typing system for a higherorder pcalculus which can be used to control the effect of such migrating code on local environments. Processes may be assigned different types depending on their intended use. This is in contrast to most of the previous work on typing processes where all processes are typed by a unique constant type, indicating essentially that they are welltyped relative to a particular environment. Our finegrained typing facilitates the management of access rights and provides host protection from potentially malicious behaviour
Types as abstract interpretations, invited paper
 In 24 th POPL
, 1997
"... Starting from a denotational semantics of the eager untyped lambdacalculus with explicit runtime errors, the standard collecting semantics is defined as specifying the strongest program properties. By a first abstraction, a new sound type collecting semantics is derived in compositional fixpoint fo ..."
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Cited by 38 (11 self)
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Starting from a denotational semantics of the eager untyped lambdacalculus with explicit runtime errors, the standard collecting semantics is defined as specifying the strongest program properties. By a first abstraction, a new sound type collecting semantics is derived in compositional fixpoint form. Then by successive (semidual) Galois connection based abstractions, type systems and/or type inference algorithms are designed as abstract semantics or abstract interpreters approximating the type collecting semantics. This leads to a hierarchy of type systems, which is part of the lattice of abstract interpretations of the untyped lambdacalculus. This hierarchy includes two new à la Church/Curry polytype systems. Abstractions of this polytype semantics lead to classical Milner/Mycroft and Damas/Milner polymorphic type schemes, Church/Curry monotypes and Hindley principal typing algorithm. This shows that types are abstract interpretations. 1
Tridirectional Typechecking
, 2004
"... In prior work we introduced a pure type assignment system that encompasses a rich set of property types, including intersections, unions, and universally and existentially quantified dependent types. In this paper ..."
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Cited by 36 (8 self)
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In prior work we introduced a pure type assignment system that encompasses a rich set of property types, including intersections, unions, and universally and existentially quantified dependent types. In this paper