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11
Approximating Maximum Weight Matching in Nearlinear Time
"... Given a weighted graph, the maximum weight matching problem (MWM) is to find a set of vertexdisjoint edges with maximum weight. In the 1960s Edmonds showed that MWMs can be found in polynomial time. At present the fastest MWM algorithm, due to Gabow and Tarjan, runs in Õ(m √ n) time, where m and n ..."
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Given a weighted graph, the maximum weight matching problem (MWM) is to find a set of vertexdisjoint edges with maximum weight. In the 1960s Edmonds showed that MWMs can be found in polynomial time. At present the fastest MWM algorithm, due to Gabow and Tarjan, runs in Õ(m √ n) time, where m and n are the number of edges and vertices in the graph. Surprisingly, restricted versions of the problem, such as computing (1 − ɛ)approximate MWMs or finding maximum cardinality matchings, are not known to be much easier (on sparse graphs). The best algorithms for these problems also run in Õ(m √ n) time. In this paper we present the first nearlinear time algorithm for computing (1 − ɛ)approximate MWMs. Specifically, given an arbitrary realweighted graph and ɛ> 0, our algorithm computes such a matching in O(mɛ −2 log 3 n) time. The previous best approximate MWM algorithm with comparable running time could only guarantee a (2/3 − ɛ)approximate solution. In addition, we present a faster algorithm, running in O(m log n log ɛ −1) time, that computes a (3/4−ɛ)approximate MWM.
A scaling algorithm for maximum weight matching in bipartite graphs
 IN: PROCEEDINGS 23RD ACMSIAM SYMPOSIUM ON DISCRETE ALGORITHMS (SODA
"... Given a weighted bipartite graph, the maximum weight matching (MWM) problem is to find a set of vertexdisjoint edges with maximum weight. We present a new scaling algorithm that runs in O(m √ n log N) time, when the weights are integers within the range of [0, N]. The result improves the previous b ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Given a weighted bipartite graph, the maximum weight matching (MWM) problem is to find a set of vertexdisjoint edges with maximum weight. We present a new scaling algorithm that runs in O(m √ n log N) time, when the weights are integers within the range of [0, N]. The result improves the previous bounds of O(Nm √ n) by Gabow and O(m √ n log (nN)) by Gabow and Tarjan over 20 years ago. Our improvement draws ideas from a not widely known result, the primal method by Balinski and Gomory.
Efficient algorithms for maximum weight matchings in general graphs with small edge weights
 in: Proceedings 23rd ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
"... Let G = (V, E) be a graph with positive integral edge weights. Our problem is to find a matching of maximum weight in G. We present a simple iterative algorithm for this problem that uses a maximum cardinality matching algorithm as a subroutine. Using the current fastest maximum cardinality matching ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Let G = (V, E) be a graph with positive integral edge weights. Our problem is to find a matching of maximum weight in G. We present a simple iterative algorithm for this problem that uses a maximum cardinality matching algorithm as a subroutine. Using the current fastest maximum cardinality matching algorithms, we solve the maximum weight matching problem in O(W √ nm logn(n 2 /m)) time, or in O(W n ω) time with high probability, where n = V , m = E, W is the largest edge weight, and ω < 2.376 is the exponent of matrix multiplication. In relatively dense graphs, our algorithm performs better than all existing algorithms with W = o(log 1.5 n). Our technique hinges on exploiting Edmonds ’ matching polytope and its dual. 1
Graph Connectivities, Network Coding, and Expander Graphs
 Proceedings of the 52nd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS
, 2011
"... Abstract — We present a new algebraic formulation to compute edge connectivities in a directed graph, using the ideas developed in network coding. This reduces the problem of computing edge connectivities to solving systems of linear equations, thus allowing us to use tools in linear algebra to desi ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Abstract — We present a new algebraic formulation to compute edge connectivities in a directed graph, using the ideas developed in network coding. This reduces the problem of computing edge connectivities to solving systems of linear equations, thus allowing us to use tools in linear algebra to design new algorithms. Using the algebraic formulation we obtain faster algorithms for computing single source edge connectivities and all pairs edge connectivities, in some settings the amortized time to compute the edge connectivity for one pair is sublinear. Through this connection, we have also found an interesting use of expanders and superconcentrators to design fast algorithms for some graph connectivity problems. 1.
Scaling algorithms for approximate and exact maximum weight matching
, 2011
"... The maximum cardinality and maximum weight matching problems can be solved in time Õ(m √ n), a bound that has resisted improvement despite decades of research. (Here m and n are the number of edges and vertices.) In this article we demonstrate that this “m √ n barrier ” is extremely fragile, in the ..."
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The maximum cardinality and maximum weight matching problems can be solved in time Õ(m √ n), a bound that has resisted improvement despite decades of research. (Here m and n are the number of edges and vertices.) In this article we demonstrate that this “m √ n barrier ” is extremely fragile, in the following sense. For any ɛ> 0, we give an algorithm that computes a (1 − ɛ)approximate maximum weight matching in O(mɛ −1 log ɛ −1) time, that is, optimal linear time for any fixed ɛ. Our algorithm is dramatically simpler than the best exact maximum weight matching algorithms on general graphs and should be appealing in all applications that can tolerate a negligible relative error. Our second contribution is a new exact maximum weight matching algorithm for integerweighted bipartite graphs that runs in time O(m √ n log N). This improves on the O(Nm √ n)time and O(m √ n log(nN))time algorithms known since the mid 1980s, for 1 ≪ log N ≪ log n. Here N is the maximum integer edge weight. 1
Algebraic Algorithms for Linear Matroid Parity Problems
"... We present fast and simple algebraic algorithms for the linear matroid parity problem and its applications. For the linear matroid parity problem, we obtain a simple randomized algorithm with running time O(mrω−1) where m and r are the number of columns and the number of rows and ω ≈ 2.376 is the ma ..."
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We present fast and simple algebraic algorithms for the linear matroid parity problem and its applications. For the linear matroid parity problem, we obtain a simple randomized algorithm with running time O(mrω−1) where m and r are the number of columns and the number of rows and ω ≈ 2.376 is the matrix multiplication exponent. This improves the O(mrω)time algorithm by Gabow and Stallmann, and matches the running time of the algebraic algorithm for linear matroid intersection, answering a question of Harvey. We also present a very simple alternative algorithm with running time O(mr2) which does not need fast matrix multiplication. We further improve the algebraic algorithms for some specific graph problems of interest. For the Mader’s disjoint Spath problem, we present an O(nω)time randomized algorithm where n is the number of vertices. This improves the running time of the existing results considerably, and matches the running time of the algebraic algorithms for graph matching. For the graphic matroid parity problem, we give an O(n4)time randomized algorithm where n is the number of vertices, and an O(n3)time randomized algorithm for a special case useful in designing approximation algorithms. These algorithms are optimal in terms of n as the input size could be Ω(n4) and Ω(n3) respectively. The techniques are based on the algebraic algorithmic framework developed by Mucha and Sankowski, Harvey, and Sankowski. While linear matroid parity and Mader’s disjoint Spath are challenging generalizations for the design of combinatorial algorithms, our results show that both the algebraic algorithms for linear matroid intersection and graph matching can be extended nicely to more general settings. All algorithms are still faster than the existing algorithms even if fast matrix multiplication is not used. These provide simple algorithms that can be easily implemented in practice.
Fast matrix rank algorithms and applications
 In Proceedings of the 44th Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC
, 2012
"... We consider the problem of computing the rank of an m × n matrix A over a field. We present a randomized algorithm to find a set of r = rank(A) linearly independent columns in Õ(A  + r ω) field operations, where A  denotes the number of nonzero entries in A and ω < 2.38 is the matrix multipli ..."
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We consider the problem of computing the rank of an m × n matrix A over a field. We present a randomized algorithm to find a set of r = rank(A) linearly independent columns in Õ(A  + r ω) field operations, where A  denotes the number of nonzero entries in A and ω < 2.38 is the matrix multiplication exponent. Previously the best known algorithm to find a set of r linearly independent columns is by Gaussian elimination, with running time O(mnr ω−2). Our algorithm is faster when r < max{m, n}, for instance when the matrix is rectangular. We also consider the problem of computing the rank of a matrix dynamically, supporting the operations of rank one updates and additions and deletions of rows and columns. We present an algorithm that updates the rank in Õ(mn) field operations. We show that these algorithms can be used to obtain faster algorithms for various problems in numerical linear algebra, combinatorial optimization and dynamic data structure.
LinearTime Approximation for Maximum Weight Matching
"... The maximum cardinality and maximum weight matching problems can be solved in Ã(mân) time, a bound that has resisted improvement despite decades of research. (Here m and n are the number of edges and vertices.) In this article, we demonstrate that this âm â n barrier â can be bypassed by ap ..."
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The maximum cardinality and maximum weight matching problems can be solved in Ã(mân) time, a bound that has resisted improvement despite decades of research. (Here m and n are the number of edges and vertices.) In this article, we demonstrate that this âm â n barrier â can be bypassed by approximation. For any É> 0, we give an algorithm that computes a (1 â É)approximate maximum weight matching in O(mÉâ1 log Éâ1) time, that is, optimal linear time for any fixed É. Our algorithm is dramatically simpler than the best exact maximum weight matching algorithms on general graphs and should be appealing in all applications that can tolerate a negligible relative error.
Algebraic Algorithms in Combinatorial Optimization
"... we extend the recent algebraic approach to design fast algorithms for two problems in combinatorial optimization. First we study the linear matroid parity problem, a common generalization of graph matching and linear matroid intersection, that has applications in various areas. We show that Harvey’s ..."
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we extend the recent algebraic approach to design fast algorithms for two problems in combinatorial optimization. First we study the linear matroid parity problem, a common generalization of graph matching and linear matroid intersection, that has applications in various areas. We show that Harvey’s algorithm for linear matroid intersection can be easily generalized to linear matroid parity. This gives an algorithm that is faster and simpler than previous known algorithms. For some graph problems that can be reduced to linear matroid parity, we again show that Harvey’s algorithm for graph matching can be generalized to these problems to give faster algorithms. While linear matroid parity and some of its applications are challenging generalizations, our results show that the algebraic algorithmic framework can be adapted nicely to give faster and simpler algorithms in more general settings. Then we study the all pairs edge connectivity problem for directed graphs, where we would like to compute minimum st cut value between all pairs of vertices. Using a combinatorial approach it is not known how to solve this problem faster
Computing the Maximum . . . Mixed Polynomial Matrices via Combinatorial Relaxation
, 2011
"... Mixed polynomial matrices are polynomial matrices with two kinds of nonzero coefficients: fixed constants that account for conservation laws and independent parameters that represent physical characteristics. The computation of their maximum degrees of minors is known to be reducible to valuated ind ..."
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Mixed polynomial matrices are polynomial matrices with two kinds of nonzero coefficients: fixed constants that account for conservation laws and independent parameters that represent physical characteristics. The computation of their maximum degrees of minors is known to be reducible to valuated independent assignment problems, which can be solved by polynomial numbers of additions, subtractions, and multiplications of rational functions. However, these arithmetic operations on rational functions are much more expensive than those on constants. In this paper, we present a new algorithm of combinatorial relaxation type. The algorithm finds a combinatorial estimate of the maximum degree by solving a weighted bipartite matching problem, and checks if the estimate is equal to the true value by solving independent matching problems. The algorithm mainly relies on fast combinatorial algorithms and performs numerical computation only when necessary. In addition, it requires no arithmetic operations on rational functions. As a byproduct, this method yields a new algorithm for solving a linear valuated independent assignment problem.