Results 1  10
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58
A Random Graph Model for Massive Graphs
, 2000
"... We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 332 (25 self)
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We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from these parameters, various properties of the graph can be derived. For example, for certain ranges of the parameters, we will compute the expected distribution of the sizes of the connected components which almost surely occur with high probability. We will illustrate the consistency of our model with the behavior of some massive graphs derived from data in telecommunications. We will also discuss the threshold function, the giant component, and the evolution of random graphs in this model.
Graphs over Time: Densification Laws, Shrinking Diameters and Possible Explanations
, 2005
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
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Cited by 302 (39 self)
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How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time, with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) orO(log(log n)). Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior, even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a “forest fire” spreading process, that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the “flammability” of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study.
Graph evolution: Densification and shrinking diameters
 ACM TKDD
, 2007
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
Abstract

Cited by 122 (13 self)
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How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time, with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) or O(log(log n)). Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior, even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a “forest fire” spreading process, that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the “flammability ” of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study. We also notice that the “forest fire” model exhibits a sharp transition between sparse graphs and graphs that are densifying. Graphs with decreasing distance between the nodes are generated around this transition point. Last, we analyze the connection between the temporal evolution of the degree distribution and densification of a graph. We find that the two are fundamentally related. We also observe that real networks exhibit this type of r
External Memory Data Structures
, 2001
"... In many massive dataset applications the data must be stored in space and query efficient data structures on external storage devices. Often the data needs to be changed dynamically. In this chapter we discuss recent advances in the development of provably worstcase efficient external memory dynami ..."
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Cited by 79 (36 self)
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In many massive dataset applications the data must be stored in space and query efficient data structures on external storage devices. Often the data needs to be changed dynamically. In this chapter we discuss recent advances in the development of provably worstcase efficient external memory dynamic data structures. We also briefly discuss some of the most popular external data structures used in practice.
A Random Graph Model for Power Law Graphs
 Experimental Math
, 2000
"... We propose a random graph m del which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences which satisfy a power law. Thism odel involves only asm all num ber of param eters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These param eters capturesom e universal characteristics ofm assive ..."
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Cited by 73 (4 self)
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We propose a random graph m del which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences which satisfy a power law. Thism odel involves only asm all num ber of param eters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These param eters capturesom e universal characteristics ofm assive graphs. Furtherm re, from these paramfi ters, various properties of the graph can be derived. Forexam)(( for certain ranges of the paramJ?0CM we willcom?C7 the expected distribution of the sizes of the connectedcom onents which almJC surely occur with high probability. We will illustrate the consistency of our m del with the behavior of so m m ssive graphs derived from data in telecom unications. We will also discuss the threshold function, the giant com ponent, and the evolution of random graphs in thism del. 1
I/OComplexity of Graph Algorithms
, 1999
"... We show lower bounds of \Omega\Gamma E V Sort(V )) for the I/Ocomplexity of graph theoretic problems like connected components, biconnected components, and minimum spanning trees, where E and V are the number of edges and vertices in the input graph, respectively. We also present a deterministic O ..."
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Cited by 69 (0 self)
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We show lower bounds of \Omega\Gamma E V Sort(V )) for the I/Ocomplexity of graph theoretic problems like connected components, biconnected components, and minimum spanning trees, where E and V are the number of edges and vertices in the input graph, respectively. We also present a deterministic O( E V Sort(V ) \Delta max(1; log log V BD E )) algorithm for the problem of graph connectivity, where B and D denote respectively the block size and number of disks. Our algorithm includes a breadth first search; this maybe of independent interest. 1 Introduction Data sets of many modern applications are too large to fit into main memory, and must reside on disk. To run such applications efficiently, it is often necessary to explicitly manage disk accesses as a part of the algorithm. In other words, the algorithm must be designed for a model that includes disk, rather than the customary RAM model. Recently, this area has received a lot of attention, and algorithms have been developed for...
Cacheoblivious priority queue and graph algorithm applications
 In Proc. 34th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2002
"... In this paper we develop an optimal cacheoblivious priority queue data structure, supporting insertion, deletion, and deletemin operations in O ( 1 B logM/B N) amortized memory B transfers, where M and B are the memory and block transfer sizes of any two consecutive levels of a multilevel memory hi ..."
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Cited by 64 (10 self)
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In this paper we develop an optimal cacheoblivious priority queue data structure, supporting insertion, deletion, and deletemin operations in O ( 1 B logM/B N) amortized memory B transfers, where M and B are the memory and block transfer sizes of any two consecutive levels of a multilevel memory hierarchy. In a cacheoblivious data structure, M and B are not used in the description of the structure. The bounds match the bounds of several previously developed externalmemory (cacheaware) priority queue data structures, which all rely crucially on knowledge about M and B. Priority queues are a critical component in many of the best known externalmemory graph algorithms, and using our cacheoblivious priority queue we develop several cacheoblivious graph algorithms.
On graph problems in a semistreaming model
 In 31st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
, 2004
"... Abstract. We formalize a potentially rich new streaming model, the semistreaming model, that we believe is necessary for the fruitful study of efficient algorithms for solving problems on massive graphs whose edge sets cannot be stored in memory. In this model, the input graph, G = (V, E), is prese ..."
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Cited by 61 (11 self)
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Abstract. We formalize a potentially rich new streaming model, the semistreaming model, that we believe is necessary for the fruitful study of efficient algorithms for solving problems on massive graphs whose edge sets cannot be stored in memory. In this model, the input graph, G = (V, E), is presented as a stream of edges (in adversarial order), and the storage space of an algorithm is bounded by O(n · polylog n), where n = V . We are particularly interested in algorithms that use only one pass over the input, but, for problems where this is provably insufficient, we also look at algorithms using constant or, in some cases, logarithmically many passes. In the course of this general study, we give semistreaming constant approximation algorithms for the unweighted and weighted matching problems, along with a further algorithm improvement for the bipartite case. We also exhibit log n / log log n semistreaming approximations to the diameter and the problem of computing the distance between specified vertices in a weighted graph. These are complemented by Ω(log (1−ɛ) n) lower bounds. 1
Externalmemory breadthfirst search with sublinear I/O
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH ANNUAL EUROPEAN SYMPOSIUM ON ALGORITHMS
, 2002
"... Breadthfirst search (BFS) is a basic graph exploration technique. We give the first external memory algorithm for sparse undirected graphs with sublinear I/O. The best previous algorithm requires \Theta (n + n+mD\Delta B \Delta logM=B n+mB) I/Os on a graph with n nodes and m edges and a machine w ..."
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Cited by 48 (13 self)
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Breadthfirst search (BFS) is a basic graph exploration technique. We give the first external memory algorithm for sparse undirected graphs with sublinear I/O. The best previous algorithm requires \Theta (n + n+mD\Delta B \Delta logM=B n+mB) I/Os on a graph with n nodes and m edges and a machine with mainmemory of size M, D parallel disks, and block size B. We present two versions of a new algorithm which requires only O i (p 1D\Delta B + p nm) \Delta n+mpD\Delta B \Delta logM=B n+mB
Concentration inequalities and martingale inequalities – a survey
 Internet Math
"... Abstract. We examine a number of generalized and extended versions of concentration inequalities and martingale inequalities. These inequalities are effective for analyzing processes with quite general conditions as illustrated in an example for an infinite Polya process and web graphs. 1. ..."
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Cited by 40 (1 self)
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Abstract. We examine a number of generalized and extended versions of concentration inequalities and martingale inequalities. These inequalities are effective for analyzing processes with quite general conditions as illustrated in an example for an infinite Polya process and web graphs. 1.