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586
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1289 (68 self)
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A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple computational rule, the sumproduct algorithm operates in factor graphs to computeeither exactly or approximatelyvarious marginal functions by distributed messagepassing in the graph. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sumproduct algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform algorithms.
Succinct indexable dictionaries with applications to encoding kary trees and multisets
 In Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
"... We consider the indexable dictionary problem, which consists of storing a set S ⊆ {0,...,m − 1} for some integer m, while supporting the operations of rank(x), which returns the number of elements in S that are less than x if x ∈ S, and −1 otherwise; and select(i) which returns the ith smallest ele ..."
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Cited by 200 (9 self)
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We consider the indexable dictionary problem, which consists of storing a set S ⊆ {0,...,m − 1} for some integer m, while supporting the operations of rank(x), which returns the number of elements in S that are less than x if x ∈ S, and −1 otherwise; and select(i) which returns the ith smallest element in S. We give a data structure that supports both operations in O(1) time on the RAM model and requires B(n,m)+ o(n)+O(lg lg m) bits to store a set of size n, where B(n,m) = ⌈ lg ( m) ⌉ n is the minimum number of bits required to store any nelement subset from a universe of size m. Previous dictionaries taking this space only supported (yes/no) membership queries in O(1) time. In the cell probe model we can remove the O(lg lg m) additive term in the space bound, answering a question raised by Fich and Miltersen, and Pagh. We present extensions and applications of our indexable dictionary data structure, including: • an informationtheoretically optimal representation of a kary cardinal tree that supports standard operations in constant time, • a representation of a multiset of size n from {0,...,m − 1} in B(n,m+n) + o(n) bits that supports (appropriate generalizations of) rank and select operations in constant time, and • a representation of a sequence of n nonnegative integers summing up to m in B(n,m + n) + o(n) bits that supports prefix sum queries in constant time. 1
Data and Computation Transformations for Multiprocessors
 In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming
, 1995
"... Effective memory hierarchy utilization is critical to the performance of modern multiprocessor architectures. We havedeveloped the first compiler system that fully automatically parallelizes sequential programs and changes the original array layouts to improve memory system performance. Our optimiza ..."
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Cited by 175 (14 self)
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Effective memory hierarchy utilization is critical to the performance of modern multiprocessor architectures. We havedeveloped the first compiler system that fully automatically parallelizes sequential programs and changes the original array layouts to improve memory system performance. Our optimization algorithm consists of two steps. The first step chooses the parallelization and computation assignment such that synchronization and data sharing are minimized. The second step then restructures the layout of the data in the shared address space with an algorithm that is based on a new data transformation framework. We ran our compiler on a set of application programs and measured their performance on the Stanford DASH multiprocessor. Our results show that the compiler can effectively optimize parallelism in conjunction with memory subsystem performance. 1 Introduction In the last decade, microprocessor speeds have been steadily improving at a rate of 50% to 100% every year[16]. Meanwh...
The method of creative telescoping
 J. Symbolic Computation
, 1991
"... An algorithm for de6nite hypergeometric summation is given. It is based, in a nonobvious way, on Gosper's algorithm for definite hypergeometric summation, and its theoretical justification relies on Bernstein's theory of holonomic systems. 1. ..."
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Cited by 173 (11 self)
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An algorithm for de6nite hypergeometric summation is given. It is based, in a nonobvious way, on Gosper's algorithm for definite hypergeometric summation, and its theoretical justification relies on Bernstein's theory of holonomic systems. 1.
GFUN: A Maple Package for the Manipulation of Generating and Holonomic Functions in One Variable
, 1992
"... We describe the gfun package which contains functions for manipulating sequences, linear recurrences or di erential equations and generating functions of various types. This document isintended both as an elementary introduction to the subject and as a reference manual for the package. ..."
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Cited by 150 (19 self)
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We describe the gfun package which contains functions for manipulating sequences, linear recurrences or di erential equations and generating functions of various types. This document isintended both as an elementary introduction to the subject and as a reference manual for the package.
Computing iceberg queries efficiently
 In Proc. of the 24th VLDB Conf
, 1998
"... Many applications compute aggregate functions... ..."
Coupon Replication Systems
 in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS
, 2005
"... Abstract—Motivated by the study of peertopeer file swarming systems à la BitTorrent, we introduce a probabilistic model of coupon replication systems. These systems consist of users, aiming to complete a collection of distinct coupons. Users are characterised by their current collection of coupons ..."
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Cited by 99 (2 self)
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Abstract—Motivated by the study of peertopeer file swarming systems à la BitTorrent, we introduce a probabilistic model of coupon replication systems. These systems consist of users, aiming to complete a collection of distinct coupons. Users are characterised by their current collection of coupons, and leave the system once they complete their coupon collection. The system evolution is then specified by describing how users of distinct types meet, and which coupons get replicated upon such encounters. For open systems, with exogenous user arrivals, we derive necessary and sufficient stability conditions in a layered scenario, where encounters are between users holding the same number of coupons. We also consider a system where encounters are between users chosen uniformly at random from the whole population. We show that performance, captured by sojourn time, is asymptotically optimal in both systems as the number of coupon types becomes large. We also consider closed systems with no exogenous user arrivals. In a special scenario where users have only one missing coupon, we evaluate the size of the population ultimately remaining in the system, as the initial number of users, N, goes to infinity. We show that this decreases geometrically with the number of coupons, K. In particular, when the ratio K / log(N) is above a critical threshold, we prove that this number of leftovers is of order log(log(N)). These results suggest that performance of file swarming systems does not depend critically on either altruistic user behavior, or on load balancing strategies such as rarest first. 1.
Discrete Mobile Centers
 Discrete and Computational Geometry
, 2001
"... We propose a new randomized algorithm for maintaining a set of clusters among moving nodes in the plane. Given a specified cluster radius, our algorithm selects and maintains a variable subset of the nodes as cluster centers. This subset has the property that (1) balls of the given radius centered a ..."
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Cited by 98 (15 self)
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We propose a new randomized algorithm for maintaining a set of clusters among moving nodes in the plane. Given a specified cluster radius, our algorithm selects and maintains a variable subset of the nodes as cluster centers. This subset has the property that (1) balls of the given radius centered at the chosen nodes cover all the others and (2) the number of centers selected is a constantfactor approximation of the minimum possible. As the nodes move, an eventbased kinetic data structure updates the clustering as necessary. This kinetic data structure is shown to be responsive, efficient, local, and compact. The produced cover is also smooth, in the sense that wholesale cluster rearrangements are avoided. The algorithm can be implemented without exact knowledge of the node positions, if each node is able to sense its distance to other nodes up to the cluster radius. Such a kinetic clustering can be used in numerous applications where mobile devices must be interconnected into an adhoc network to collaboratively perform some tasks. 1
Sphere Packing Numbers for Subsets of the Boolean nCube with Bounded VapnikChervonenkis Dimension
, 1992
"... : Let V ` f0; 1g n have VapnikChervonenkis dimension d. Let M(k=n;V ) denote the cardinality of the largest W ` V such that any two distinct vectors in W differ on at least k indices. We show that M(k=n;V ) (cn=(k + d)) d for some constant c. This improves on the previous best result of ((cn ..."
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Cited by 96 (4 self)
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: Let V ` f0; 1g n have VapnikChervonenkis dimension d. Let M(k=n;V ) denote the cardinality of the largest W ` V such that any two distinct vectors in W differ on at least k indices. We show that M(k=n;V ) (cn=(k + d)) d for some constant c. This improves on the previous best result of ((cn=k) log(n=k)) d . This new result has applications in the theory of empirical processes. 1 The author gratefully acknowledges the support of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at UC Berkeley and ONR grant N0001491J1162. 1 1 Statement of Results Let n be natural number greater than zero. Let V ` f0; 1g n . For a sequence of indices I = (i 1 ; . . . ; i k ), with 1 i j n, let V j I denote the projection of V onto I, i.e. V j I = f(v i 1 ; . . . ; v i k ) : (v 1 ; . . . ; v n ) 2 V g: If V j I = f0; 1g k then we say that V shatters the index sequence I. The VapnikChervonenkis dimension of V is the size of the longest index sequence I that is shattered by V [VC71] (t...