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399
Consensus and cooperation in networked multiagent systems
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
"... This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of ..."
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Cited by 772 (2 self)
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This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in smallworld networks, Markov processes and gossipbased algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with latticetype nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of smallworld effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations.
Consistency of spectral clustering
, 2004
"... Consistency is a key property of statistical algorithms, when the data is drawn from some underlying probability distribution. Surprisingly, despite decades of work, little is known about consistency of most clustering algorithms. In this paper we investigate consistency of a popular family of spe ..."
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Cited by 567 (15 self)
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Consistency is a key property of statistical algorithms, when the data is drawn from some underlying probability distribution. Surprisingly, despite decades of work, little is known about consistency of most clustering algorithms. In this paper we investigate consistency of a popular family of spectral clustering algorithms, which cluster the data with the help of eigenvectors of graph Laplacian matrices. We show that one of the two of major classes of spectral clustering (normalized clustering) converges under some very general conditions, while the other (unnormalized), is only consistent under strong additional assumptions, which, as we demonstrate, are not always satisfied in real data. We conclude that our analysis provides strong evidence for the superiority of normalized spectral clustering in practical applications. We believe that methods used in our analysis will provide a basis for future exploration of Laplacianbased methods in a statistical setting.
GossipBased Computation of Aggregate Information
, 2003
"... between computers, and a resulting paradigm shift from centralized to highly distributed systems. With massive scale also comes massive instability, as node and link failures become the norm rather than the exception. For such highly volatile systems, decentralized gossipbased protocols are emergin ..."
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Cited by 455 (2 self)
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between computers, and a resulting paradigm shift from centralized to highly distributed systems. With massive scale also comes massive instability, as node and link failures become the norm rather than the exception. For such highly volatile systems, decentralized gossipbased protocols are emerging as an approach to maintaining simplicity and scalability while achieving faulttolerant information dissemination.
SimRank: A Measure of StructuralContext Similarity
 In KDD
, 2002
"... The problem of measuring "similarity" of objects arises in many applications, and many domainspecific measures have been developed, e.g., matching text across documents or computing overlap among itemsets. We propose a complementary approach, applicable in any domain with objectto ..."
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Cited by 375 (5 self)
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The problem of measuring "similarity" of objects arises in many applications, and many domainspecific measures have been developed, e.g., matching text across documents or computing overlap among itemsets. We propose a complementary approach, applicable in any domain with objecttoobject relationships, that measures similarity of the structural context in which objects occur, based on their relationships with other objects. Effectively, we compute a measure that says "two objects are similar if they are related to similar objects." This general similarity measure, called SimRank, is based on a simple and intuitive graphtheoretic model. For a given domain, SimRank can be combined with other domainspecific similarity measures. We suggest techniques for efficient computation of SimRank scores, and provide experimental results on two application domains showing the computational feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.
Multicommodity maxflow mincut theorems and their use in designing approximation algorithms
 J. ACM
, 1999
"... Abstract. In this paper, we establish maxflow mincut theorems for several important classes of multicommodity flow problems. In particular, we show that for any nnode multicommodity flow problem with uniform demands, the maxflow for the problem is within an O(log n) factor of the upper bound imp ..."
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Cited by 370 (6 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we establish maxflow mincut theorems for several important classes of multicommodity flow problems. In particular, we show that for any nnode multicommodity flow problem with uniform demands, the maxflow for the problem is within an O(log n) factor of the upper bound implied by the mincut. The result (which is existentially optimal) establishes an important analogue of the famous 1commodity maxflow mincut theorem for problems with multiple commodities. The result also has substantial applications to the field of approximation algorithms. For example, we use the flow result to design the first polynomialtime (polylog ntimesoptimal) approximation algorithms for wellknown NPhard optimization problems such as graph partitioning, mincut linear arrangement, crossing number, VLSI layout, and minimum feedback arc set. Applications of the flow results to path routing problems, network reconfiguration, communication in distributed networks, scientific computing and rapidly mixing Markov chains are also described in the paper.
Computing communities in large networks using random walks
 J. of Graph Alg. and App. bf
, 2004
"... Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most realworld complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advan ..."
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Cited by 224 (3 self)
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Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most realworld complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advantages: it captures well the community structure in a network, it can be computed efficiently, and it can be used in an agglomerative algorithm to compute efficiently the community structure of a network. We propose such an algorithm, called Walktrap, which runs in time O(mn 2) and space O(n 2) in the worst case, and in time O(n 2 log n) and space O(n 2) in most realworld cases (n and m are respectively the number of vertices and edges in the input graph). Extensive comparison tests show that our algorithm surpasses previously proposed ones concerning the quality of the obtained community structures and that it stands among the best ones concerning the running time.
Automatic Multimedia Crossmodal Correlation Discovery
, 2004
"... Given an image (or video clip, or audio song), how do we automatically assign keywords to it? The general problem is to find correlations across the media in a collection of multimedia objects like video clips, with colors, and/or motion, and/or audio, and/or text scripts. We propose a novel, graph ..."
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Cited by 138 (16 self)
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Given an image (or video clip, or audio song), how do we automatically assign keywords to it? The general problem is to find correlations across the media in a collection of multimedia objects like video clips, with colors, and/or motion, and/or audio, and/or text scripts. We propose a novel, graphbased approach, "MMG", to discover such crossmodal correlations. Our
Walking in Facebook: A Case Study of Unbiased Sampling of OSNs
 in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM
, 2010
"... Abstract—With more than 250 million active users [1], Facebook (FB) is currently one of the most important online social networks. Our goal in this paper is to obtain a representative (unbiased) sample of Facebook users by crawling its social graph. In this quest, we consider and implement several c ..."
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Cited by 115 (14 self)
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Abstract—With more than 250 million active users [1], Facebook (FB) is currently one of the most important online social networks. Our goal in this paper is to obtain a representative (unbiased) sample of Facebook users by crawling its social graph. In this quest, we consider and implement several candidate techniques. Two approaches that are found to perform well are the MetropolisHasting random walk (MHRW) and a reweighted random walk (RWRW). Both have pros and cons, which we demonstrate through a comparison to each other as well as to the ”groundtruth ” (UNI obtained through true uniform sampling of FB userIDs). In contrast, the traditional BreadthFirstSearch (BFS) and Random Walk (RW) perform quite poorly, producing substantially biased results. In addition to offline performance assessment, we introduce onlineformal convergence diagnostics to assess sample quality during the data collection process. We show how these can be used to effectively determine when a random walk sample is of adequate size and quality for subsequent use (i.e., when it is safe to cease sampling). Using these methods, we collect the first, to the best of our knowledge, unbiased sample of Facebook. Finally, we use one of our representative datasets, collected through MHRW, to characterize several key properties of Facebook. IndexTerms—Measurements,onlinesocial networks,Facebook, graph sampling, crawling, bias. I.
Distributed Construction of Random Expander Networks
 In IEEE Infocom
, 2003
"... We present a novel distributed algorithm for constructing random overlay networks that are composed of d Hamilton cycles. The protocol is completely decentralized as no globallyknown server is required. The constructed topologies are expanders with O(log d n) diameter with high probability. ..."
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Cited by 107 (0 self)
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We present a novel distributed algorithm for constructing random overlay networks that are composed of d Hamilton cycles. The protocol is completely decentralized as no globallyknown server is required. The constructed topologies are expanders with O(log d n) diameter with high probability.
A survey on pagerank computing
 Internet Mathematics
, 2005
"... Abstract. This survey reviews the research related to PageRank computing. Components of a PageRank vector serve as authority weights for web pages independent of their textual content, solely based on the hyperlink structure of the web. PageRank is typically used as a web search ranking component. T ..."
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Cited by 104 (0 self)
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Abstract. This survey reviews the research related to PageRank computing. Components of a PageRank vector serve as authority weights for web pages independent of their textual content, solely based on the hyperlink structure of the web. PageRank is typically used as a web search ranking component. This defines the importance of the model and the data structures that underly PageRank processing. Computing even a single PageRank is a difficult computational task. Computing many PageRanks is a much more complex challenge. Recently, significant effort has been invested in building sets of personalized PageRank vectors. PageRank is also used in many diverse applications other than ranking. We are interested in the theoretical foundations of the PageRank formulation, in the acceleration of PageRank computing, in the effects of particular aspects of web graph structure on the optimal organization of computations, and in PageRank stability. We also review alternative models that lead to authority indices similar to PageRank and the role of such indices in applications other than web search. We also discuss linkbased search personalization and outline some aspects of PageRank infrastructure from associated measures of convergence to link preprocessing. 1.