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23
Arithmetic coding revisited
 ACM Transactions on Information Systems
, 1995
"... Over the last decade, arithmetic coding has emerged as an important compression tool. It is now the method of choice for adaptive coding on multisymbol alphabets because of its speed, low storage requirements, and effectiveness of compression. This article describes a new implementation of arithmeti ..."
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Cited by 139 (2 self)
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Over the last decade, arithmetic coding has emerged as an important compression tool. It is now the method of choice for adaptive coding on multisymbol alphabets because of its speed, low storage requirements, and effectiveness of compression. This article describes a new implementation of arithmetic coding that incorporates several improvements over a widely used earlier version by Witten, Neal, and Cleary, which has become a de facto standard. These improvements include fewer multiplicative operations, greatly extended range of alphabet sizes and symbol probabilities, and the use of lowprecision arithmetic, permitting implementation by fast shift/add operations. We also describe a modular structure that separates the coding, modeling, and probability estimation components of a compression system. To motivate the improved coder, we consider the needs of a wordbased text compression program. We report a range of experimental results using this and other models. Complete source code is available.
Partial Encryption of Compressed Images and Videos
, 2000
"... The increased popularity of multimedia applications places a great demand on efficient data storage and transmission techniques. Network communication, especially over a wireless network, can easily be intercepted and must be protected from eavesdroppers. Unfortunately, encryption and decryption ..."
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Cited by 73 (1 self)
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The increased popularity of multimedia applications places a great demand on efficient data storage and transmission techniques. Network communication, especially over a wireless network, can easily be intercepted and must be protected from eavesdroppers. Unfortunately, encryption and decryption are slow and it is often difficult, if not impossible, to carry out realtime secure image and video communication and processing. Methods have been proposed to combine compression and encryption together to reduce the overall processing time [3, 4, 12, 18, 20], but they are either insecure or too computationally intensive. We propose a novel solution, called partial encryption, in which a secure encryption algorithm is used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Partial encryption is applied to several image and video compression algorithms in this paper. Only 13%27% of the output from quadtree compression algorithms [13, 17, 29, 30, 31, 32] is encrypted for typical images, and less than 2% is encrypted for 512 \Theta 512 images compressed by the SPIHT algorithm [26]. The results are similar for video compression, resulting in a significant reduction in encryption and decryption time. The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast, secure, and do not reduce the compression performance of the underlying compression algorithm. EDICS Number: SP 7.8 This research is supported in part by the Motorola Wireless Data Group and the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council under Grant OGP9198 and Postgraduate Scholarship. y Presently at Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo. z To whom correspondence should be addressed. 1 1
Delta Algorithms: An Empirical Analysis
, 1998
"... Delta algorithms compress data by encoding one file in terms of another. This type of compression is useful in a number of situations: storing multiple versions of data, displaying differences, merging changes, distributing updates, storing backups, transmitting video sequences, and others. This pap ..."
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Cited by 51 (4 self)
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Delta algorithms compress data by encoding one file in terms of another. This type of compression is useful in a number of situations: storing multiple versions of data, displaying differences, merging changes, distributing updates, storing backups, transmitting video sequences, and others. This paper studies the performance parameters of several delta algorithms, using a benchmark of over 1300 pairs of files taken from two successive releases of GNU software. Results indicate that modern delta compression algorithms based on ZivLempel techniques significantly outperform diff, a popular but older delta compressor, in terms of compression ratio. The modern compressors also correlate better with the actual difference between files without sacrificing performance.
An Empirical Study of Delta Algorithms
, 1996
"... . Delta algorithms compress data by encoding one file in terms of another. This type of compression is useful in a number of situations: storing multiple versions of data, distributing updates, storing backups, transmitting video sequences, and others. This paper studies the performance parameters o ..."
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Cited by 30 (10 self)
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. Delta algorithms compress data by encoding one file in terms of another. This type of compression is useful in a number of situations: storing multiple versions of data, distributing updates, storing backups, transmitting video sequences, and others. This paper studies the performance parameters of several delta algorithms, using a benchmark of over 1300 pairs of files taken from two successive releases of GNU software. Results indicate that modern delta compression algorithms based on ZivLempel techniques significantly outperform diff, a popular but older delta compressor, in terms of compression ratio. The modern compressors also correlate better with the actual difference between files; one of them is even faster than diff in both compression and decompression speed. 1 Introduction Delta algorithms, i.e., algorithms that compute differences between two files or strings, have a number of uses when multiple versions of data objects must be stored, transmitted, or proce...
Database Compression: A Performance Enhancement Tool
 Proc. of 7th Intl. Conf. on Management of Data (COMAD
, 1995
"... Compression is typically used for databases that have grown large enough to create a strain on system storage capacity. We argue here that database compression is attractive from a query processing viewpoint also and should therefore be implemented even when disk storage is plentiful. We study the c ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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Compression is typically used for databases that have grown large enough to create a strain on system storage capacity. We argue here that database compression is attractive from a query processing viewpoint also and should therefore be implemented even when disk storage is plentiful. We study the compression ratio and query processing performance of a variety of compression algorithms, for different compression granularities, on a set of relations drawn from real world databases. Our study shows that attribute level compression is the best from a query processing perspective but has poor compression ratio. We then present a modified attribute level compression algorithm, based on nonadaptive arithmetic compression, called COLA, which simultaneously provides good query processing and reasonable compression ratios. We also analyze, for a range of relational queries, the performance benefits that COLA could be expected to provide. 1 Introduction Many database management systems provide...
SelfOrganizing Data Structures
 In
, 1998
"... . We survey results on selforganizing data structures for the search problem and concentrate on two very popular structures: the unsorted linear list, and the binary search tree. For the problem of maintaining unsorted lists, also known as the list update problem, we present results on the competit ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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. We survey results on selforganizing data structures for the search problem and concentrate on two very popular structures: the unsorted linear list, and the binary search tree. For the problem of maintaining unsorted lists, also known as the list update problem, we present results on the competitiveness achieved by deterministic and randomized online algorithms. For binary search trees, we present results for both online and offline algorithms. Selforganizing data structures can be used to build very effective data compression schemes. We summarize theoretical and experimental results. 1 Introduction This paper surveys results in the design and analysis of selforganizing data structures for the search problem. The general search problem in pointer data structures can be phrased as follows. The elements of a set are stored in a collection of nodes. Each node also contains O(1) pointers to other nodes and additional state data which can be used for navigation and selforganizati...
A New Data Structure for Cumulative Frequency Tables
 Software: Practice and Experience
, 1994
"... this paper as MTF, HEAP and SPLAY, respectively. In all cases they attempt to keep frequently used symbols in quicklyreferenced positions within the data structure, but at the cost of sometimes extensive data reorganization ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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this paper as MTF, HEAP and SPLAY, respectively. In all cases they attempt to keep frequently used symbols in quicklyreferenced positions within the data structure, but at the cost of sometimes extensive data reorganization
SelfAdjusting Trees in Practice for Large Text Collections
 Software  Practice and Experience
, 2002
"... Splay and randomised search trees are selfbalancing binary tree structures with little or no space overhead compared to a standard binary search tree. Both trees are intended for use in applications where node accesses are skewed, for example in gathering the distinct words in a large text collecti ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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Splay and randomised search trees are selfbalancing binary tree structures with little or no space overhead compared to a standard binary search tree. Both trees are intended for use in applications where node accesses are skewed, for example in gathering the distinct words in a large text collection for index construction. We investigate the efficiency of these trees for such vocabulary accumulation. Surprisingly, unmodified splaying and randomised search trees are on average around 25% slower than using a standard binary tree. We investigate heuristics to limit splay tree reorganisation costs and show their effectiveness in practice. In particular, a periodic rotation scheme improves the speed of splaying by 27%, while other proposed heuristics are less effective. We also report the performance of efficient bitwise hashing and redblack trees for comparison.
On the Cryptanalysis of Huffman Codes
, 1992
"... Datacompression techniques such as Huffman coding are often used in conjunction with cryptographic schemes. By removing redundancy in the source document, they can significantly increase the difficulty of cryptanalysis. In this thesis we consider the question: "what is the difficulty of breaking a ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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Datacompression techniques such as Huffman coding are often used in conjunction with cryptographic schemes. By removing redundancy in the source document, they can significantly increase the difficulty of cryptanalysis. In this thesis we consider the question: "what is the difficulty of breaking a datacompression scheme by itself ?" We examine most closely the problem of deciphering a file that has been Huffmancoded, but for which the Huffman code used is unavailable. We find that a Huffmancode can be surprisingly difficult to cryptanalyze. We present a detailed analysis of the situation for a threesymbol source alphabet, and concisely derive the conditions when the source probabilities lead to true ambiguity. We also present some general results for the case of an arbitrary (finite) alphabet, and show that: 1. If the source probabilities are highly skewed, then there is no ambiguity. 2. If the source probabilities are equally likely and the size of the source alphabet is a pow...