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27
An Invitation to Higher Gauge Theory
, 2010
"... In this easy introduction to higher gauge theory, we describe parallel transport for particles and strings in terms of 2connections on 2bundles. Just as ordinary gauge theory involves a gauge group, this generalization involves a gauge ‘2group’. We focus on 6 examples. First, every abelian Lie gr ..."
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In this easy introduction to higher gauge theory, we describe parallel transport for particles and strings in terms of 2connections on 2bundles. Just as ordinary gauge theory involves a gauge group, this generalization involves a gauge ‘2group’. We focus on 6 examples. First, every abelian Lie group gives a Lie 2group; the case of U(1) yields the theory of U(1) gerbes, which play an important role in string theory and multisymplectic geometry. Second, every group representation gives a Lie 2group; the representation of the Lorentz group on 4d Minkowski spacetime gives the Poincaré 2group, which leads to a spin foam model for Minkowski spacetime. Third, taking the adjoint representation of any Lie group on its own Lie algebra gives a ‘tangent 2group’, which serves as a gauge 2group in 4d BF theory, which has topological gravity as a special case. Fourth, every Lie group has an ‘inner automorphism 2group’, which serves as the gauge group in 4d BF theory with cosmological constant term. Fifth, every Lie group has an ‘automorphism 2group’, which plays an important role in the theory of nonabelian gerbes. And sixth, every compact simple Lie group gives a ‘string 2group’. We also touch upon higher structures such as the ‘gravity 3group’, and the Lie 3superalgebra that governs 11dimensional supergravity. 1
Presentations of OmegaCategories By Directed Complexes
, 1997
"... The theory of directed complexes is extended from free !categories to arbitrary ! categories by defining presentations in which the generators are atoms and the relations are equations between molecules. Our main result relates these presentations to the more standard algebraic presentations; we ..."
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The theory of directed complexes is extended from free !categories to arbitrary ! categories by defining presentations in which the generators are atoms and the relations are equations between molecules. Our main result relates these presentations to the more standard algebraic presentations; we also show that every !category has a presentation by directed complexes. The approach is similar to that used by Crans for pasting presentations. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification: 18D05. 1 Introduction There are at present three combinatorial structures for constructing !categories: pasting schemes, defined in 1988 by Johnson [8], parity complexes, introduced in 1991 by Street [16, 17] and directed complexes, given by Steiner in 1993 [15]. These structures each consist of cells which have collections of lower dimensional cells as domain and codomain; see for example Definition 2.2 below. They also have `local' conditions on the cells, ensuring that a cell together with its boundin...
Model structures on the category of small double categories, Algebraic and Geometric Topology 8
, 2008
"... Abstract. In this paper we obtain several model structures on DblCat, the category of small double categories. Our model structures have three sources. We first transfer across a categorificationnerve adjunction. Secondly, we view double categories as internal categories in Cat and take as our weak ..."
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Abstract. In this paper we obtain several model structures on DblCat, the category of small double categories. Our model structures have three sources. We first transfer across a categorificationnerve adjunction. Secondly, we view double categories as internal categories in Cat and take as our weak equivalences various internal equivalences defined via Grothendieck topologies. Thirdly, DblCat inherits a model structure as a category of algebras over a 2monad. Some of these model structures coincide and the different points of view give us further results about cofibrant replacements and cofibrant objects. As part of this program we give explicit descriptions and discuss properties of free double categories, quotient double categories, colimits of double categories, and several nerves
Cofibrations in homotopy theory
, 2007
"... Abstract. We define AndersonBrownCisinski (ABC) cofibration categories, and construct homotopy colimits of diagrams of objects in ABC cofibration categories. Homotopy colimits for Quillen model categories are obtained as a particular case. We attach to each ABC cofibration category a left Heller d ..."
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Abstract. We define AndersonBrownCisinski (ABC) cofibration categories, and construct homotopy colimits of diagrams of objects in ABC cofibration categories. Homotopy colimits for Quillen model categories are obtained as a particular case. We attach to each ABC cofibration category a left Heller derivator. A dual theory is developed for homotopy limits in ABC fibration categories and for right Heller derivators. These constructions provide a natural framework for ’doing homotopy theory ’ in ABC (co)fibration categories. Contents
A folk model structure on omegacat
, 2009
"... The primary aim of this work is an intrinsic homotopy theory of strict ωcategories. We establish a model structure on ωCat, the category of strict ωcategories. The constructions leading to the model structure in question are expressed entirely within the scope of ωCat, building on a set of generat ..."
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The primary aim of this work is an intrinsic homotopy theory of strict ωcategories. We establish a model structure on ωCat, the category of strict ωcategories. The constructions leading to the model structure in question are expressed entirely within the scope of ωCat, building on a set of generating cofibrations and a class of weak equivalences as basic items. All object are fibrant while free objects are cofibrant. We further exhibit model structures of this type on ncategories for arbitrary n ∈ N, as specialisations of the ωcategorical one along right adjoints. In particular, known cases for n = 1 and n = 2 nicely fit into the scheme.
Computing Critical Pairs in Polygraphs
 In Workshop on Computer Algebra Methods and Commutativity of Algebraic Diagrams (CAMCAD
, 2009
"... Polygraphs generalize to 2categories the usual notion of equational theory, by describing them as quotients, modulo equations, of freely generated 2categories on a given set of generators. In order to work with morphisms modulo the equations, it is often convenient to orient the equations into a c ..."
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Polygraphs generalize to 2categories the usual notion of equational theory, by describing them as quotients, modulo equations, of freely generated 2categories on a given set of generators. In order to work with morphisms modulo the equations, it is often convenient to orient the equations into a confluent rewriting system. In the case of a terminating system, confluence can be checked by showing that critical pairs are joinable. However, the computation of the critical pairs is more complicated for polygraphs than for term rewriting systems: in particular, two left members of a rule don’t necessarily have a finite number of unifiers. We advocate here that a more general notion of rewriting system should be considered instead, and introduce an operad of compact contexts in a 2category, in which two rules have a finite number of unifiers. A concrete representation of contexts is proposed, as well as an unification algorithm for these.
Polygraphic resolutions and homology of monoids
, 2007
"... We prove that for any monoid M, the homology defined by the second author by means of polygraphic resolutions coincides with the homology classically defined by means of resolutions by free ZMmodules. 1 ..."
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We prove that for any monoid M, the homology defined by the second author by means of polygraphic resolutions coincides with the homology classically defined by means of resolutions by free ZMmodules. 1
Pasting Presentations for OmegaCategories
, 1995
"... The pasting theorem showed that pasting schemes are useful in studying free !categories. It was thought that their inflexibility with respect to composition and identities prohibited wider use. This is not the case: there is a way of dealing with identities which makes it possible to describe !ca ..."
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The pasting theorem showed that pasting schemes are useful in studying free !categories. It was thought that their inflexibility with respect to composition and identities prohibited wider use. This is not the case: there is a way of dealing with identities which makes it possible to describe !categories in terms of generating pasting schemes and relations between generated pastings, i.e., with pasting presentations. In this chapter I develop the necessary machinery for this. The main result, that the !category generated by a pasting presentation is universal with respect to respectable families of realizations, is a generalization of the pasting theorem. Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Pasting schemes according to Johnson 4 2.1 Graded sets : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.2 !categories : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 2.3 Pasting schemes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 The pasting theorem : : ...
ON DEFORMATIONS OF PASTING DIAGRAMS
"... Abstract. We adapt the work of Power [14] to describe general, notnecessarily composable, notnecessarily commutative 2categorical pasting diagrams and their composable and commutative parts. We provide a deformation theory for pasting diagrams valued in the 2category of klinear categories, para ..."
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Abstract. We adapt the work of Power [14] to describe general, notnecessarily composable, notnecessarily commutative 2categorical pasting diagrams and their composable and commutative parts. We provide a deformation theory for pasting diagrams valued in the 2category of klinear categories, paralleling that provided for diagrams of algebras by Gerstenhaber and Schack [9], proving the standard results. Along the way, the construction gives rise to a bicategorical analog of the homotopy Galgebras of Gerstenhaber and Voronov [10]. 1.
DISTRIBUTIVE LAWS IN PROGRAMMING STRUCTURES
, 2009
"... Generalised Distributive laws in Computer Science are rules governing the transformation of one programming structure into another. In programming, they are programs satisfying certain formal conditions. Their importance has been to date documented in several isolated cases by diverse formal approac ..."
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Generalised Distributive laws in Computer Science are rules governing the transformation of one programming structure into another. In programming, they are programs satisfying certain formal conditions. Their importance has been to date documented in several isolated cases by diverse formal approaches. These applications have always meant leaps in understanding the nature of the subject. However, distributive laws have not yet been given the attention they deserve. One of the reasons for this omission is certainly the lack of a formal notion of distributive laws in their full generality. This hinders the discovery and formal description of occurrences of distributive laws, which is the precursor of any formal manipulation. In this thesis, an approach to formalisation of distributive laws is presented based on the functorial approach to formal Category Theory pioneered by Lawvere and others, notably Gray. The proposed formalism discloses a rather simple nature of distributive laws of the kind found in programming structures based on lax 2naturality and Gray’s tensor product of 2categories. It generalises the existing more specific notions of distributive