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73
The Quickhull algorithm for convex hulls
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE
, 1996
"... The convex hull of a set of points is the smallest convex set that contains the points. This article presents a practical convex hull algorithm that combines the twodimensional Quickhull Algorithm with the generaldimension BeneathBeyond Algorithm. It is similar to the randomized, incremental algo ..."
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Cited by 501 (0 self)
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The convex hull of a set of points is the smallest convex set that contains the points. This article presents a practical convex hull algorithm that combines the twodimensional Quickhull Algorithm with the generaldimension BeneathBeyond Algorithm. It is similar to the randomized, incremental algorithms for convex hull and Delaunay triangulation. We provide empirical evidence that the algorithm runs faster when the input contains nonextreme points and that it uses less memory. Computational geometry algorithms have traditionally assumed that input sets are well behaved. When an algorithm is implemented with floatingpoint arithmetic, this assumption can lead to serious errors. We briefly describe a solution to this problem when computing the convex hull in two, three, or four dimensions. The output is a set of “thick ” facets that contain all possible exact convex hulls of the input. A variation is effective in five or more dimensions.
Estimating dynamic models of imperfect competition. Working Paper
, 2006
"... We describe a twostep algorithm for estimating dynamic games under the assumption that behavior is consistent with Markov perfect equilibrium. In the first step, the policy functions and the law of motion for the state variables are estimated. In the second step, the remaining structural parameters ..."
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Cited by 194 (15 self)
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We describe a twostep algorithm for estimating dynamic games under the assumption that behavior is consistent with Markov perfect equilibrium. In the first step, the policy functions and the law of motion for the state variables are estimated. In the second step, the remaining structural parameters are estimated using the optimality conditions for equilibrium. The second step estimator is a simple simulated minimum distance estimator. The algorithm applies to a broad class of models, including industry competition models with both discrete and continuous controls such as the Ericson and Pakes (1995) model. We test the algorithm on a class of dynamic discrete choice models with normally distributed errors and a class of dynamic oligopoly models similar to that of Pakes and McGuire (1994).
A Pivoting Algorithm for Convex Hulls and Vertex Enumeration of Arrangements and Polyhedra
, 1992
"... We present a new piv otbased algorithm which can be used with minor modification for the enumeration of the facets of the convex hull of a set of points, or for the enumeration of the vertices of an arrangement or of a convex polyhedron, in arbitrary dimension. The algorithm has the following prope ..."
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Cited by 193 (29 self)
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We present a new piv otbased algorithm which can be used with minor modification for the enumeration of the facets of the convex hull of a set of points, or for the enumeration of the vertices of an arrangement or of a convex polyhedron, in arbitrary dimension. The algorithm has the following properties: (a) Virtually no additional storage is required beyond the input data; (b) The output list produced is free of duplicates; (c) The algorithm is extremely simple, requires no data structures, and handles all degenerate cases; (d) The running time is output sensitive for nondegenerate inputs; (e) The algorithm is easy to efficiently parallelize. For example, the algorithm finds the v vertices of a polyhedron in R d defined by a nondegenerate system of n inequalities (or dually, the v facets of the convex hull of n points in R d,where each facet contains exactly d given points) in time O(ndv) and O(nd) space. The v vertices in a simple arrangement of n hyperplanes in R d can be found in O(n 2 dv) time and O(nd) space complexity. The algorithm is based on inverting finite pivot algorithms for linear programming.
How good are convex hull algorithms?
, 1996
"... A convex polytope P can be speci ed in two ways: as the convex hull of the vertex set V of P, or as the intersection of the set H of its facetinducing halfspaces. The vertex enumeration problem is to compute V from H. The facet enumeration problem it to compute H from V. These two problems are esse ..."
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Cited by 87 (9 self)
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A convex polytope P can be speci ed in two ways: as the convex hull of the vertex set V of P, or as the intersection of the set H of its facetinducing halfspaces. The vertex enumeration problem is to compute V from H. The facet enumeration problem it to compute H from V. These two problems are essentially equivalent under point/hyperplane duality. They are among the central computational problems in the theory of polytopes. It is open whether they can be solved in time polynomial in jHj + jVj. In this paper we consider the main known classes of algorithms for solving these problems. We argue that they all have at least one of two weaknesses: inability todealwell with "degeneracies," or, inability tocontrol the sizes of intermediate results. We then introduce families of polytopes that exercise those weaknesses. Roughly speaking, fatlattice or intricate polytopes cause algorithms with bad degeneracy handling to perform badly; dwarfed polytopes cause algorithms with bad intermediate size control to perform badly. We also present computational experience with trying to solve these problem on these hard polytopes, using various implementations of the main algorithms.
Double Description Method Revisited
, 1996
"... . The double description method is a simple and useful algorithm for enumerating all extreme rays of a general polyhedral cone in IR d , despite the fact that we can hardly state any interesting theorems on its time and space complexities. In this paper, we reinvestigate this method, introduce som ..."
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Cited by 81 (2 self)
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. The double description method is a simple and useful algorithm for enumerating all extreme rays of a general polyhedral cone in IR d , despite the fact that we can hardly state any interesting theorems on its time and space complexities. In this paper, we reinvestigate this method, introduce some new ideas for efficient implementations, and show some empirical results indicating its practicality in solving highly degenerate problems. 1 Introduction A pair (A; R) of real matrices A and R is said to be a double description pair or simply a DD pair if the relationship Ax 0 if and only if x = R for some 0 holds. Clearly, for a pair (A; R) to be a DD pair, it is necessary that the column size of A is equal to the row size of R, say d. The term "double description" was introduced by Motzkin et al. [MRTT53], and it is quite natural in the sense that such a pair contains two different descriptions of the same object. Namely, the set P (A) represented by A as P (A) = fx 2 IR d : Ax...
Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach
, 2005
"... We reconsider the identification and estimation of GormanLancasterstyle hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen’s first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to ha ..."
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Cited by 69 (2 self)
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We reconsider the identification and estimation of GormanLancasterstyle hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen’s first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an alternative semiparametric approach to Rosen’s second stage in which we assume that the parametric form of utility is known, but we place no restrictions on the aggregate distribution of utility parameters. If there are only a small number of products, we show how to construct bounds on individuals’ utility parameters, as well as other economic objects such as aggregate demand and consumer surplus. We apply our methods to estimating the demand for personal computers.
Parameterized Polyhedra and their Vertices
 International Journal of Parallel Programming
, 1995
"... Algorithms specified for parametrically sized problems are more general purpose and more reusable than algorithms for fixed sized problems. For this reason, there is a need for representing and symbolically analyzing linearly parameterized algorithms. An important class of parallel algorithms can be ..."
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Cited by 47 (11 self)
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Algorithms specified for parametrically sized problems are more general purpose and more reusable than algorithms for fixed sized problems. For this reason, there is a need for representing and symbolically analyzing linearly parameterized algorithms. An important class of parallel algorithms can be described as systems of parameterized affine recurrence equations (PARE). In this representation, linearly parameterized polyhedra are used to describe the domains of variables. This paper describes an algorithm which computes the set of parameterized vertices of a polyhedron, given its representation as a system of parameterized inequalities. This provides an important tool for the symbolic analysis of the parameterized domains used to define variables and computation domains in PARE's. A library of operations on parameterized polyhedra based on the Polyhedral Library has been written in C and is freely distributed. 1 Introduction In order to improve the performance of scientific programs...
Precise Widening Operators for Convex Polyhedra
 Static Analysis: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium, volume 2694 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2003
"... Convex polyhedra constitute the most used abstract domain among those capturing numerical relational information. Since the domain of convex polyhedra admits infinite ascending chains, it has to be used in conjunction with appropriate mechanisms for enforcing and accelerating convergence of the ..."
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Cited by 44 (9 self)
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Convex polyhedra constitute the most used abstract domain among those capturing numerical relational information. Since the domain of convex polyhedra admits infinite ascending chains, it has to be used in conjunction with appropriate mechanisms for enforcing and accelerating convergence of the fixpoint computation. Widening operators provide a simple and general characterization for such mechanisms. For the domain of convex polyhedra, the original widening operator proposed by Cousot and Halbwachs amply deserves the name of standard widening since most analysis and verification tools that employ convex polyhedra also employ that operator. Nonetheless, there is an unfulfilled demand for more precise widening operators. In this paper, after a formal introduction to the standard widening where we clarify some aspects that are often overlooked, we embark on the challenging task of improving on it. We present a framework for the systematic definition of new and precise widening operators for convex polyhedra. The framework is then instantiated so as to obtain a new widening operator that combines several heuristics and uses the standard widening as a last resort so that it is never less precise. A preliminary experimental evaluation has yielded promising results.
Generating All Vertices of a Polyhedron Is Hard
 DISCRETE COMPUT GEOM (2008 ) 39 : 174–190 175
, 2008
"... We show that generating all negative cycles of a weighted graph is a hard enumeration problem, in both the directed and undirected cases. More precisely, given a family of negative (directed) cycles, it is an NPcomplete problem to decide whether this family can be extended or there are no other ne ..."
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Cited by 24 (6 self)
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We show that generating all negative cycles of a weighted graph is a hard enumeration problem, in both the directed and undirected cases. More precisely, given a family of negative (directed) cycles, it is an NPcomplete problem to decide whether this family can be extended or there are no other negative (directed) cycles in the graph, implying that (directed) negative cycles cannot be generated in polynomial output time, unless P = NP. As a corollary, we solve in the negative two wellknown generating problems from linear programming: (i) Given an infeasible system of linear inequalities, generating all minimal infeasible subsystems is hard. Yet, for generating maximal feasible subsystems the complexity remains open. (ii) Given a feasible system of linear inequalities, generating all vertices of the corresponding polyhedron is hard. Yet, in the case of bounded polyhedra the complexity remains