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Automated Synthesis of Analog Electrical Circuits by Means of Genetic Programming
, 1997
"... The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a highlevel statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values ..."
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The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a highlevel statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is well known and there is no previously known general automated technique for synthesizing an analog circuit from a highlevel statement of the circuit's desired behavior. This paper presents a single uniform approach using genetic programming for the automatic synthesis of both the topology and sizing of a suite of eight different prototypical analog circuits, including a lowpass filter, a crossover (woofer and tweeter) filter, a source identification circuit, an amplifier, a computational circuit, a timeoptimal controller circuit, a temperaturesensing circuit, and a voltage reference circuit. The problemspecific information required for each of the eight problems is minimal and consists primarily of the number of inputs and outputs of the desired circuit, the types of available components, and a fitness measure that restates the highlevel
The Evolution of Lisp
 ACM SIGPLAN Notices
, 1993
"... Lisp is the world's greatest programming languageor so its proponents think. The structure of Lisp makes it easy to extend the language or even to implement entirely new dialects without starting from scratch. Overall, the evolution of Lisp has been guided more by institutional rivalry, one ..."
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Cited by 52 (0 self)
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Lisp is the world's greatest programming languageor so its proponents think. The structure of Lisp makes it easy to extend the language or even to implement entirely new dialects without starting from scratch. Overall, the evolution of Lisp has been guided more by institutional rivalry, oneupsmanship, and the glee born of technical cleverness that is characteristic of the "hacker culture" than by sober assessments of technical requirements. Nevertheless this process has eventually produced both an industrialstrength programming language, messy but powerful, and a technically pure dialect, small but powerful, that is suitable for use by programminglanguage theoreticians. We pick up where McCarthy's paper in the first HOPL conference left off. We trace the development chronologically from the era of the PDP6, through the heyday of Interlisp and MacLisp, past the ascension and decline of special purpose Lisp machines, to the present era of standardization activities. We then examine...
Automated analog circuit synthesis using a linear representation
 in: Second Internationall Conference on Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware (SpringerVerlag
, 1998
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CLP(R) and Some Electrical Engineering Problems
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1991
"... The Constraint Logic Programming Scheme defines a class of languages designed for programming with constraints using a logic programming approach. These languages are soundly based on a unified framework of formal semantics. In particular, as an instance of this scheme with real arithmetic constrain ..."
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Cited by 35 (5 self)
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The Constraint Logic Programming Scheme defines a class of languages designed for programming with constraints using a logic programming approach. These languages are soundly based on a unified framework of formal semantics. In particular, as an instance of this scheme with real arithmetic constraints, the CLP(R) language facilitates and encourages a concise and declarative style of programming for problems involving a mix of numeric and nonnumeric computation. In this paper we illustrate the practical applicability of CLP(R) with examples of programs to solve electrical engineering problems. This field is particularly rich in problems that are complex and largely numeric, enabling us to demonstrate a number of the unique features of CLP(R). A detailed look at some of the more important programming techniques highlights the ability of CLP(R) to support wellknown, powerful techniques from constraint programming. Our thesis is that CLP(R) is an embodiment of these techniques in a langu...
Constraints: A Uniform Approach to Aliasing and Typing
 In Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, ACM SIGACTSIGPLAN
, 1984
"... A constraint is a relation among program variables that is maintained throughout execution. Type declarations and a very general form of aliasing can be expressed as constraints. A proof system based upon the interpretation of Hoare triples as temporal logic formulas is given for reasoning about pro ..."
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Cited by 14 (5 self)
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A constraint is a relation among program variables that is maintained throughout execution. Type declarations and a very general form of aliasing can be expressed as constraints. A proof system based upon the interpretation of Hoare triples as temporal logic formulas is given for reasoning about programs with constraints. The proof system is shown to be sound and relatively complete, and example program proofs are given. 1 Introduction Type declarations and aliasing relations have traditionally been thought of as unrelated concepts. However, both can be viewed as specifying properties that do not change during program execution. This view leads to a uniform method for reasoning about types and aliasing in which the usual Hoare logic triples are regarded as temporal logic formulas. Aliasing two variables x and y means they always have the same value. This is usually implemented by allocating the same memory location to x # Work supported in part by the National Science Foundation unde...
A prototype framework for knowledgebased analog circuit synthesis
 Association for Computing Machinery
, 1987
"... An organization for a knowledgebased analog (circuit synthesis tool is described. Analog circuit topologies are represented as a hierarchy of functional blocks; a planning mechanism is introduced to translate performance specifications between levels in this circuit hierarchy. A prototype impleme ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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An organization for a knowledgebased analog (circuit synthesis tool is described. Analog circuit topologies are represented as a hierarchy of functional blocks; a planning mechanism is introduced to translate performance specifications between levels in this circuit hierarchy. A prototype implementation, OASYS, synthesizes sized transistor schematics for simple CMOS operational amplifiers from performance specifications and process parameters, and demonstrates the workability of the a.pproach. 1.
HigherOrder Derivative Constraints in Qualitative Simulation
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1991
"... Qualitative simulation is a useful method for predicting the possible qualitatively distinct behaviors of an incompletely known mechanism described by a system of qualitative differential equations (QDEs). Under some circumstances, sparse information about the derivatives of variables can lead to in ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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Qualitative simulation is a useful method for predicting the possible qualitatively distinct behaviors of an incompletely known mechanism described by a system of qualitative differential equations (QDEs). Under some circumstances, sparse information about the derivatives of variables can lead to intractable branching (or "chatter") representing uninteresting or even spurious distinctions among qualitative behaviors. The problem of chatter stands in the way of real applications such as qualitative simulation of models in the design or diagnosis of engineered systems. One solution to this problem is to exploit information about higherorder derivatives of the variables. We demonstrate automatic methods for identification of chattering variables, algebraic derivation of expressions for secondorder derivatives, and evaluation and application of the sign of second and thirdorder derivatives of variables, resulting in tractable simulation of important qualitative models. Caution is requir...
Extended Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Power Electronic Circuit Design
"... Abstract—Ant colony optimization (ACO) is typically used to search paths through graphs. The concept is based on simulating the behavior of ants in finding paths from the colony to food. Its searching mechanism is applicable for optimizing electric circuits with components, like resistors and capaci ..."
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Abstract—Ant colony optimization (ACO) is typically used to search paths through graphs. The concept is based on simulating the behavior of ants in finding paths from the colony to food. Its searching mechanism is applicable for optimizing electric circuits with components, like resistors and capacitors, available in discrete values. However, power electronic circuits (PECs) generally consist of components, like inductors, manufactured in continuous values. Therefore, the traditional ACO algorithm cannot be applied directly. In this paper, an extended ACO (eACO) that can search the optimal values of components manufactured in discrete and continuous values is presented. The idea is based on using the orthogonal design method (ODM) to dynamically update the database of the components available with continuous values, so that these components will have pseudodiscrete values in the search space. To speed up the optimization process, the ODM performs local search of the best combination around the best ant. The eACO also takes the component tolerances into account in evaluating the fitness value of each ant. The proposed algorithm has been successfully used to optimize the design of a buck regulator. The predicted results have been compared with the published results available in the literature and verified with experimental measurements. Index Terms—Ant colony optimization (ACO), circuit optimization, orthogonal design method (ODM), power electronics circuits
Implementation of a Decoupled Optimization Technique for Design of Switching Regulators Using Genetic Algorithms
"... Abstract—This paper presents an implementation of a decoupled optimization technique for design of switching regulators using genetic algorithms (GAs). The optimization process entails the selection of component values in a switching regulator, in order to meet the static and dynamic requirements. A ..."
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Abstract—This paper presents an implementation of a decoupled optimization technique for design of switching regulators using genetic algorithms (GAs). The optimization process entails the selection of component values in a switching regulator, in order to meet the static and dynamic requirements. Although the proposed method inherits characteristics of evolutionary computations that involve randomness, recombination, and survival of the fittest, it does not perform a wholecircuit optimization. Thus, intensive computations that are usually found in stochastic optimization techniques can be avoided. Similar to many design approaches for power electronics circuits, a regulator is decoupled into two components, namely the power conversion stage (PCS) and the feedback network (FN). The PCS is optimized with the required static characteristics, whilst the FN is optimized with the required static and dynamic behaviors of the whole system. Systematic optimization procedures will be described and the technique is illustrated with the design of a buck regulator with overcurrent protection. The predicted results are compared with the published results available in the literature and are verified with experimental measurements. Index Terms—Circuit optimization, circuit simulation, computeraided design, genetic algorithms, power electronics. I.
1 The Evolution of Lisp
"... Lisp is the world’s greatest programming language—or so its proponents think. The structure of Lisp makes it easy to extend the language or even to implement entirely new dialects without starting from scratch. Overall, the evolution of Lisp has been guided more by institutional rivalry, oneupsmans ..."
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Lisp is the world’s greatest programming language—or so its proponents think. The structure of Lisp makes it easy to extend the language or even to implement entirely new dialects without starting from scratch. Overall, the evolution of Lisp has been guided more by institutional rivalry, oneupsmanship, and the glee born of technical cleverness that is characteristic of the “hacker culture ” than by sober assessments of technical requirements. Nevertheless this process has eventually produced both an industrialstrength programming language, messy but powerful, and a technically pure dialect, small but powerful, that is suitable for use by programminglanguage theoreticians. We pick up where McCarthy’s paper in the first HOPL conference left off. We trace the development chronologically from the era of the PDP6, through the heyday of Interlisp and MacLisp, past the ascension and decline of special purpose Lisp machines, to the present era of standardization activities. We then examine the technical evolution of a few representative language features, including both some notable successes and some notable failures, that illuminate design issues that distinguish Lisp from other