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Display of Surfaces from Volume Data
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1988
"... Abstract V /" The application of volume rendering techniques to the display of surfaces from sampled scalar functions of three spatial dimensions is explored. Fitting of geometric primitives to the sampled data is not required. Images are formed by directly shading each sample and projecting it ..."
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Cited by 867 (11 self)
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Abstract V /" The application of volume rendering techniques to the display of surfaces from sampled scalar functions of three spatial dimensions is explored. Fitting of geometric primitives to the sampled data is not required. Images are formed by directly shading each sample and projecting it onto the picture plane. Surface shading calculations are performed at every voxel with local gradient vectors serving as surface normals. In a separate step, surface classification operators are applied to obtain a partial opacity for every voxel. Operators that detect isovalue contour surfaces and region boundary surfaces are presented. Independence of shading and classification calculations insures an undistorted visualization of 3D shape. Nonbinary classification operators insure that small or poorly defined features are not IosL The resulting colors and opacities am composited from back to front along viewing rays to form an image. The technique is simple and fast, yet displays surfaces exhibiting smooth silhouettes and few other aliasing artifacts. The use of selective blurring and supersampling to further improve image quality is also described. Examples from two applications are given: molecular graphics and medical imaging. 1.
FAST VOLUME RENDERING USING A SHEARWARP FACTORIZATION OF THE VIEWING TRANSFORMATION
, 1995
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that req ..."
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Cited by 541 (2 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that require on the order of 100 seconds to render typical data sets on a workstation. Algorithms with optimizations that exploit coherence in the data have reduced rendering times to the range of ten seconds but are still not fast enough for interactive visualization applications. In this thesis we present a family of volume rendering algorithms that reduces rendering times to one second. First we present a scanlineorder volume rendering algorithm that exploits coherence in both the volume data and the image. We show that scanlineorder algorithms are fundamentally more efficient than commonlyused ray casting algorithms because the latter must perform analytic geometry calculations (e.g. intersecting rays with axisaligned boxes). The new scanlineorder algorithm simply streams through the volume and the image in storage order. We describe variants of the algorithm for both parallel and perspective projections and
Footprint evaluation for volume rendering
 Computer Graphics
, 1990
"... This paper presents a forward mapping rendering algorithm to display regular volumetric grids that may not have the same spacings in the three grid directions. It takes advantage of the fact that convolution can be thought of as distributing energy from input samples into space. The renderer calcul ..."
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Cited by 504 (1 self)
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This paper presents a forward mapping rendering algorithm to display regular volumetric grids that may not have the same spacings in the three grid directions. It takes advantage of the fact that convolution can be thought of as distributing energy from input samples into space. The renderer calculates an image plane footprint for each data sample and uses the footprint to spread the sample's energy onto the image plane. A result of the technique is that the forward mapping algorithm can support perspective without excessive cost, and support adaptive resampling of the threedimensional data set during image generation.
Volume Rendering
, 1988
"... A technique for rendering images Of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The ..."
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Cited by 446 (2 self)
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A technique for rendering images Of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The algorithms used are designed to avoid artifacts caused by aliasing and quantization and can be efficiently implemented on an image computer. Images from a variety of applications are shown.
Efficient ray tracing of volume data
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1990
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at ..."
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Cited by 390 (4 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at each point are derived from the data using local operators. Since all voxels participate in the generation of each image, rendering time grows linearly with the size of the dataset. This paper presents a fronttoback imageorder volumerendering algorithm and discusses two techniques for improving its performance. The first technique employs a pyramid of binary volumes to encode spatial coherence present in the data, and the second technique uses an opacity threshold to adaptively terminate ray tracing. Although the actual time saved depends on the data, speedups of an order of magnitude have been observed for datasets of useful size and complexity. Examples from two applications are given: medical imaging and molecular graphics.
Chromium: A StreamProcessing Framework for Interactive Rendering on Clusters
, 2002
"... We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sortfirst and sortlast parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support the same applications while using only commodit ..."
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Cited by 300 (10 self)
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We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sortfirst and sortlast parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support the same applications while using only commodity graphics accelerators. In addition, these stream filters can be extended programmatically, allowing the user to customize the stream transformations performed by nodes in a cluster. Because our stream processing mechanism is completely general, any clusterparallel rendering algorithm can be either implemented on top of or embedded in Chromium. In this paper, we give examples of realworld applications that use Chromium to achieve good scalability on clusters of workstations, and describe other potential uses of this stream processing technology. By completely abstracting the underlying graphics architecture, network topology, and API command processing semantics, we allow a variety of applications to run in different environments.
Comprehensible Rendering of 3D Shapes
, 1990
"... We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatchin ..."
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Cited by 292 (0 self)
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We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatching. All of them are realized with 2D image processing operations instead of line tracking processes, so that they can be efficiently combined with conventional surface rendering algorithms. Data about the geometric properties of the surfaces are preserved as Geometric Buffers (Gbuffers). Each Gbuffer contains one geometric property such as the depth or the normal vector of each pixel. By using Gbuffers as intermediate results, artificial enhancement processes are separated from geometric processes (projection and hidden surface removal) and physical processes (shading and texture mapping), and performed as postprocesses. This permits a user to rapidly examine various combinations of enhancement techniques without excessive recompntation, and easily obtain the most comprehensible image. Our method can be widely applied for various purposes. Several of these, edge enhancement, line drawing illustrations, topographical maps, medical imaging, and surface analysis, are presented in this paper.
A Polygonal Approximation to Direct Scalar Volume Rendering
 Computer Graphics
, 1990
"... One method of directly rendering a threedimensional volume of scalar data is to project each cell in a volume onto the screen. Rasterizing a volume cell is more complex than rasterizing a polygon. A method is presented that approximates tetrahedral volume cells with hardware renderable transparent ..."
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Cited by 255 (3 self)
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One method of directly rendering a threedimensional volume of scalar data is to project each cell in a volume onto the screen. Rasterizing a volume cell is more complex than rasterizing a polygon. A method is presented that approximates tetrahedral volume cells with hardware renderable transparent triangles. This method produces results which are visually similar to more exact methods for scalar volume rendering, but is faster and has smaller memory requirements. The method is best suited for display of smoothlychanging data. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.0 [Computer Graphics]: General; I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling. Additional Key Words and Phrases: Volume rendering, scientific visualization. 1 Introduction Display of threedimensional scalar volumes has recently become an active area of research. A scalar volume is described by some function f(x; y; z) defined over some region R of threedimensional space. In many scientific ap...
A Bayesian Approach to Digital Matting
, 2001
"... This paper proposes a new Bayesian framework for solving the matting problem, i.e. extracting a foreground element from a background image by estimating an opacity for each pixel of the foreground element. Our approach models both the foreground and background color distributions with spatiallyvaryi ..."
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Cited by 239 (3 self)
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This paper proposes a new Bayesian framework for solving the matting problem, i.e. extracting a foreground element from a background image by estimating an opacity for each pixel of the foreground element. Our approach models both the foreground and background color distributions with spatiallyvarying sets of Gaussians, and assumes a fractional blending of the foreground and background colors to produce the final output. It then uses a maximumlikelihood criterion to estimate the optimal opacity, foreground and background simultaneously. In addition to providing a principled approach to the matting problem, our algorithm effectively handles objects with intricate boundaries, such as hair strands and fur, and provides an improvement over existing techniques for these difficult cases.