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46
Turing Oracle Machines, Online Computing, and Three Displacements in Computability Theory
, 2009
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Alan Turing and the Mathematical Objection
 Minds and Machines 13(1
, 2003
"... Abstract. This paper concerns Alan Turing’s ideas about machines, mathematical methods of proof, and intelligence. By the late 1930s, Kurt Gödel and other logicians, including Turing himself, had shown that no finite set of rules could be used to generate all true mathematical statements. Yet accord ..."
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Abstract. This paper concerns Alan Turing’s ideas about machines, mathematical methods of proof, and intelligence. By the late 1930s, Kurt Gödel and other logicians, including Turing himself, had shown that no finite set of rules could be used to generate all true mathematical statements. Yet according to Turing, there was no upper bound to the number of mathematical truths provable by intelligent human beings, for they could invent new rules and methods of proof. So, the output of a human mathematician, for Turing, was not a computable sequence (i.e., one that could be generated by a Turing machine). Since computers only contained a finite number of instructions (or programs), one might argue, they could not reproduce human intelligence. Turing called this the “mathematical objection ” to his view that machines can think. Logicomathematical reasons, stemming from his own work, helped to convince Turing that it should be possible to reproduce human intelligence, and eventually compete with it, by developing the appropriate kind of digital computer. He felt it should be possible to program a computer so that it could learn or discover new rules, overcoming the limitations imposed by the incompleteness and undecidability results in the same way that human mathematicians presumably do. Key words: artificial intelligence, ChurchTuring thesis, computability, effective procedure, incompleteness, machine, mathematical objection, ordinal logics, Turing, undecidability The ‘skin of an onion ’ analogy is also helpful. In considering the functions of the mind or the brain we find certain operations which we can express in purely mechanical terms. This we say does not correspond to the real mind: it is a sort of skin which we must strip off if we are to find the real mind. But then in what remains, we find a further skin to be stripped off, and so on. Proceeding in this way, do we ever come to the ‘real ’ mind, or do we eventually come to the skin which has nothing in it? In the latter case, the whole mind is mechanical (Turing, 1950, p. 454–455). 1.
Computability and Incomputability
"... The conventional wisdom presented in most computability books and historical papers is that there were several researchers in the early 1930’s working on various precise definitions and demonstrations of a function specified by a finite procedure and that they should all share approximately equal cr ..."
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The conventional wisdom presented in most computability books and historical papers is that there were several researchers in the early 1930’s working on various precise definitions and demonstrations of a function specified by a finite procedure and that they should all share approximately equal credit. This is incorrect. It was Turing alone who achieved the characterization, in the opinion of Gödel. We also explore Turing’s oracle machine and its analogous properties in analysis. Keywords: Turing amachine, computability, ChurchTuring Thesis, Kurt Gödel, Alan Turing, Turing omachine, computable approximations,
Towards a theory of intelligence
 Theoretical Computer Science
"... In 1950, Turing suggested that intelligent behavior might require “a departure from the completely disciplined behaviour involved in computation”, but nothing that a digital computer could not do. In this paper, I want to explore Turing’s suggestion by asking what it is, beyond computation, that int ..."
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In 1950, Turing suggested that intelligent behavior might require “a departure from the completely disciplined behaviour involved in computation”, but nothing that a digital computer could not do. In this paper, I want to explore Turing’s suggestion by asking what it is, beyond computation, that intelligence might require, why it might require it and what knowing the answers to the first two questions might do to help us understand artificial and natural intelligence.
Geometry of abstraction in quantum computation
"... Quantum algorithms are sequences of abstract operations, performed on nonexistent computers. They are in obvious need of categorical semantics. We present some steps in this direction, following earlier contributions of Abramsky, Coecke and Selinger. In particular, we analyze function abstraction i ..."
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Quantum algorithms are sequences of abstract operations, performed on nonexistent computers. They are in obvious need of categorical semantics. We present some steps in this direction, following earlier contributions of Abramsky, Coecke and Selinger. In particular, we analyze function abstraction in quantum computation, which turns out to characterize its classical interfaces. Some quantum algorithms provide feasible solutions of important hard problems, such as factoring and discrete log (which are the building blocks of modern cryptography). It is of a great practical interest to precisely characterize the computational resources needed to execute such quantum algorithms. There are many ideas how to build a quantum computer. Can we prove some necessary conditions? Categorical semantics help with such questions. We show how to implement an important family of quantum algorithms using just abelian groups and relations.
A History of Satisfiability
, 2009
"... 1.1. Preface: the concept of satisfiability Interest in Satisfiability is expanding for a variety of reasons, not in the least because nowadays more problems are being solved faster by SAT solvers than other means. This is probably because Satisfiability stands at the crossroads of logic, graph theo ..."
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1.1. Preface: the concept of satisfiability Interest in Satisfiability is expanding for a variety of reasons, not in the least because nowadays more problems are being solved faster by SAT solvers than other means. This is probably because Satisfiability stands at the crossroads of logic, graph theory, computer science, computer engineering, and operations research. Thus, many problems originating in one of these fields typically have multiple translations to Satisfiability and there exist many mathematical tools available to the SAT solver to assist in solving them with improved performance. Because of the strong links to so many fields, especially logic, the history of Satisfiability can best be understood as it unfolds with respect to its logic roots. Thus, in addition to timelining events specific to Satisfiability, the chapter follows the presence of Satisfiability in logic as it was developed to model human thought and scientific reasoning through its use in computer design and now as modeling tool for solving a variety of practical problems. In order to succeed in this, we must introduce many ideas that have arisen during numerous attempts to reason
Levels of Undecidability in Rewriting
, 2011
"... Undecidability of various properties of first order term rewriting systems is wellknown. An undecidable property can be classified by the complexity of the formula defining it. This classification gives rise to a hierarchy of distinct levels of undecidability, starting from the arithmetical hierarc ..."
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Undecidability of various properties of first order term rewriting systems is wellknown. An undecidable property can be classified by the complexity of the formula defining it. This classification gives rise to a hierarchy of distinct levels of undecidability, starting from the arithmetical hierarchy classifying properties using first order arithmetical formulas, and continuing into the analytic hierarchy, where quantification over function variables is allowed. In this paper we give an overview of how the main properties of first order term rewriting systems are classified in these hierarchies. We consider properties related to normalization (strong normalization, weak normalization and dependency problems) and properties related to confluence (confluence, local confluence and the unique normal form property). For all of these we distinguish between the single term version and the uniform version. Where appropriate, we also distinguish between ground and open terms. Most uniform properties are Π 0 2complete. The particular problem of local confluence turns out to be Π 0 2complete for ground terms, but only Σ 0 1complete (and thereby recursively enumerable) for open terms. The most surprising result concerns dependency pair problems without minimality flag: we prove this problem to be Π 1 1complete, hence not in the arithmetical hierarchy, but properly in the analytic hierarchy. Some of our results are new or have appeared in our earlier publications [35, 7]. Others are based on folklore constructions, and are included for completeness as their precise classifications have hardly been noticed previously.
Historical Projects in Discrete Mathematics and Computer Science
"... A course in discrete mathematics is a relatively recent addition, within the last 30 or 40 years, to the modern American undergraduate curriculum, born out of a need to instruct computer science majors in algorithmic thought. The roots of discrete mathematics, however, are as old as mathematics itse ..."
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A course in discrete mathematics is a relatively recent addition, within the last 30 or 40 years, to the modern American undergraduate curriculum, born out of a need to instruct computer science majors in algorithmic thought. The roots of discrete mathematics, however, are as old as mathematics itself, with the notion of counting a discrete operation, usually cited as the first mathematical development
The Mechanization of the Diagonalization Proof Strategy
 FACHBEREICH INFORMATIK, UNIVERSITAT DES SAARLANDES, IM STADTWALD
, 1996
"... We present an empirical study of mathematical proofs by diagonalization, the aim is their mechanization based on proof planning techniques. We show that these proofs can be constructed according to a strategy that (i) finds an indexing relation, (ii) constructs a diagonal element, and (iii) makes th ..."
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We present an empirical study of mathematical proofs by diagonalization, the aim is their mechanization based on proof planning techniques. We show that these proofs can be constructed according to a strategy that (i) finds an indexing relation, (ii) constructs a diagonal element, and (iii) makes the implicit contradiction of the diagonal element explicit. Moreover we suggest how diagonal elements can be represented.
Genetic programming with primitive recursion
 In GECCO ’06: Proceedings of the 8th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation
, 2006
"... When Genetic Programming is used to evolve arithmetic functions it often operates by composing them from a fixed collection of elementary operators and applying them to parameters or certain primitive constants. This limits the expressiveness of the programs that can be evolved. It is possible to ex ..."
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When Genetic Programming is used to evolve arithmetic functions it often operates by composing them from a fixed collection of elementary operators and applying them to parameters or certain primitive constants. This limits the expressiveness of the programs that can be evolved. It is possible to extend the expressiveness of such an approach significantly without leaving the comfort of terminating programs by including primitive recursion as a control operation. Thetechniqueusedherewasgene expression programming [2], a variation of grammatical evolution [8]. Grammatical evolution avoids the problem of program bloat; its separation of genotype (string of symbols) and phenotype (expression tree) permits to optimise the generated programs without interfering with the evolutionary process.