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Leveraging NonLexical Knowledge for the Linked Open Data Web
"... Abstract. The Linked Data paradigm introduces the possibility to share machinereadable data across numerous Web resources, thus enabling applications that are traditionally only possible in corporate intranets to be realized on a Web scale. Due to the creation of an increasing number of publicly av ..."
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Abstract. The Linked Data paradigm introduces the possibility to share machinereadable data across numerous Web resources, thus enabling applications that are traditionally only possible in corporate intranets to be realized on a Web scale. Due to the creation of an increasing number of publicly available Linked Open Data resources, the Web of Data has become a major application area for semantic technologies. This work introduces a recently published data set LON of nonlexical entities (NLEs) that can be used for numerous tasks of quantitative modeling on the Semantic Web. The size of the published data increases the magnitude of the public Linked Data significantly, yet we show how it can be seamlessly integrated into current application architectures for the Web of Data. 1
Is the Continuum Hypothesis a definite mathematical problem?
"... [t]he analysis of the phrase “how many ” unambiguously leads to a definite meaning for the question [“How many different sets of integers do their exist?”]: the problem is to find out which one of the א’s is the number of points of a straight line … Cantor, after having proved that this number is gr ..."
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[t]he analysis of the phrase “how many ” unambiguously leads to a definite meaning for the question [“How many different sets of integers do their exist?”]: the problem is to find out which one of the א’s is the number of points of a straight line … Cantor, after having proved that this number is greater than א0, conjectured that it is א1. An equivalent proposition is this: any infinite subset of the continuum has the power either of the set of integers or of the whole continuum. This is Cantor’s continuum hypothesis. … But, although Cantor’s set theory has now had a development of more than sixty years and the [continuum] problem is evidently of great importance for it, nothing has been proved so far relative to the question of what the power of the continuum is or whether its subsets satisfy the condition just stated, except that … it is true for a certain infinitesimal fraction of these subsets, [namely] the analytic sets. Not even an upper bound, however high, can be assigned for the power of the continuum. It is undecided whether this number is regular or singular, accessible or inaccessible, and (except for König’s negative result) what its character of cofinality is. Gödel 1947, 516517 [in Gödel 1990, 178]
Constructing Cardinals from below
"... this paper are all formulated in terms of a formula #(X), with only X free. For now, the formula is one in the language of basic set theory and X is a secondorder variable. The corresponding condition is that #(A) is true in R(#) for some A and, for no # # is #(A R(#)) true in R(#). The fo ..."
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this paper are all formulated in terms of a formula #(X), with only X free. For now, the formula is one in the language of basic set theory and X is a secondorder variable. The corresponding condition is that #(A) is true in R(#) for some A and, for no # # is #(A R(#)) true in R(#). The formal expression that this condition is an existence condition is the axiom #X[#(X) # ### R(#))] (1) (X) is the result of restricting the first and secondorder bound variables in #(X) to R(#) and R(# + 1), respectively. Axioms of this form have been called reflection principles, because they express the fact that R(#)'s possession of a certain property is reflected by R(#)'s possession of it for some # #
The Mathematician as a Formalist
 in Truth in Mathematics (H.G. Dales and
, 1998
"... Introduction The existence of this meeting bears testimony to the anodyne remark that there is a continuing debate about what it means to say of a statement in mathematics that it is `true'. This debate began at least 2500 years ago, and will presumably continue at least well into the next mil ..."
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Introduction The existence of this meeting bears testimony to the anodyne remark that there is a continuing debate about what it means to say of a statement in mathematics that it is `true'. This debate began at least 2500 years ago, and will presumably continue at least well into the next millennium; it would be implausible and perhaps presumptuous to suppose that even the union of the talented and distinguished speakers that have been assembled here in Mussomeli will approach any solution to the problem, or even arrive at a consensus of what a solution would amount to. In the end, it falls to the philosophers, with their professional expertise and training, to carry forward the debate and to move us to a fuller understanding of this subtle and elusive matter. Indeed, we are hearing at this meeting a variety of contributions to the debate from different philosophical points of view; also, there is a good number of recent published contributions to the debate (see (Maddy 1990)
Gödel on Intuition and on Hilbert’s finitism
"... There are some puzzles about Gödel’s published and unpublished remarks concerning finitism that have led some commentators to believe that his conception of it was unstable, that he oscillated back and forth between different accounts of it. I want to discuss these puzzles and argue that, on the con ..."
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There are some puzzles about Gödel’s published and unpublished remarks concerning finitism that have led some commentators to believe that his conception of it was unstable, that he oscillated back and forth between different accounts of it. I want to discuss these puzzles and argue that, on the contrary, Gödel’s writings represent a smooth evolution, with just one rather small doublereversal, of his view of finitism. He used the term “finit ” (in German) or “finitary ” or “finitistic ” primarily to refer to Hilbert’s conception of finitary mathematics. On two occasions (only, as far as I know), the lecture notes for his lecture at Zilsel’s [Gödel, 1938a] and the lecture notes for a lecture at Yale [Gödel, *1941], he used it in a way that he knew—in the second case, explicitly—went beyond what Hilbert meant. Early in his career, he believed that finitism (in Hilbert’s sense) is openended, in the sense that no correct formal system can be known to formalize all finitist proofs and, in particular, all possible finitist proofs of consistency of firstorder number theory, P A; but starting in the Dialectica paper
In Defense of the Ideal 2nd DRAFT
"... This paper lies at the edge of the topic of the workshop. We can write down a Π1 1 axiom whose models are precisely the ∈structures 〈Rα, ∈ ∩R2 α〉 where α> 0 and Rα is the collection of all (pure) sets of rank < α. From this, one can consider the introduction of new axioms concerning the size ..."
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This paper lies at the edge of the topic of the workshop. We can write down a Π1 1 axiom whose models are precisely the ∈structures 〈Rα, ∈ ∩R2 α〉 where α> 0 and Rα is the collection of all (pure) sets of rank < α. From this, one can consider the introduction of new axioms concerning the size of α. The question of the grounds for doing so is perhaps the central question of the workshop. But I want to discuss another question which, as I said, arises at the periphery: How do we know that there are structures 〈Rα, ∈ ∩R2 α〉? How do we know that there exist such things as sets and how do we know that, given such things, the axioms we write down are true of them? These seem very primitive questions, but the skepticism implicit in them has deep (and ancient) roots. In particular, they are questions about ideal objects in general, and not just about the actual infinite. I want to explain why I think the questions (as intended) are empty and the skepticism unfounded. 1 I will be expanding the argument of the first part of my paper “Proof and truth: the Platonism of mathematics”[1986a]. 2 The argument in question
A matemática de Kurt Gödel ∗
"... I would like to convey to you, most of all, my admiration: You solved this enormous problem with a truly masterful simplicity. (...) Reading your investigation was really a first class aesthetic pleasure. ..."
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I would like to convey to you, most of all, my admiration: You solved this enormous problem with a truly masterful simplicity. (...) Reading your investigation was really a first class aesthetic pleasure.
Fraenkel’s axiom of restriction: Axiom choice, intended models and categoricity
"... A recent debate has focused on different methodological principles underlying the practice of axiom choice in mathematics (cf. Feferman et al., 2000; Maddy, 1997; Easwaran, 2008). The general aim of these contributions can be described as twofold: first to clarify the spectrum of informal justifica ..."
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A recent debate has focused on different methodological principles underlying the practice of axiom choice in mathematics (cf. Feferman et al., 2000; Maddy, 1997; Easwaran, 2008). The general aim of these contributions can be described as twofold: first to clarify the spectrum of informal justification