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Hilbert’s twentyfourth problem
 American Mathematical Monthly
, 2001
"... 1. INTRODUCTION. For geometers, Hilbert’s influential work on the foundations of geometry is important. For analysts, Hilbert’s theory of integral equations is just as important. But the address “Mathematische Probleme ” [37] that David Hilbert (1862– 1943) delivered at the second International Cong ..."
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1. INTRODUCTION. For geometers, Hilbert’s influential work on the foundations of geometry is important. For analysts, Hilbert’s theory of integral equations is just as important. But the address “Mathematische Probleme ” [37] that David Hilbert (1862– 1943) delivered at the second International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) in Paris has tremendous importance for all mathematicians. Moreover, a substantial part of
Gödel on computability
"... Around 1950, both Gödel and Turing wrote papers for broader audiences. 1 Gödel drew in his 1951 dramatic philosophical conclusions from the general formulation of his second incompleteness theorem. These conclusions concerned the nature of mathematics and the human mind. The general formulation of t ..."
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Around 1950, both Gödel and Turing wrote papers for broader audiences. 1 Gödel drew in his 1951 dramatic philosophical conclusions from the general formulation of his second incompleteness theorem. These conclusions concerned the nature of mathematics and the human mind. The general formulation of the second theorem was explicitly based on Turing’s 1936 reduction of finite procedures to machine computations. Turing gave in his 1954 an understated analysis of finite procedures in terms of Post production systems. This analysis, prima facie quite different from that given in 1936, served as the basis for an exposition of various unsolvable problems. Turing had addressed issues of mentality and intelligence in contemporaneous essays, the best known of which is of course Computing machinery and intelligence. Gödel’s and Turing’s considerations from this period intersect through their attempt, on the one hand, to analyze finite, mechanical procedures and, on the other hand, to approach mental phenomena in a scientific way. Neuroscience or brain science was an important component of the latter for both: Gödel’s remarks in the Gibbs Lecture as well as in his later conversations with Wang and Turing’s Intelligent Machinery can serve as clear evidence for that. 2 Both men were convinced that some mental processes are not mechanical, in the sense that Turing machines cannot mimic them. For Gödel, such processes were to be found in mathematical experience and he was led to the conclusion that mind is separate from matter. Turing simply noted that for a machine or a brain it is not enough to be converted into a universal (Turing) machine in order to become intelligent: “discipline”, the characteristic
Hilbert’s Program Then and Now
, 2005
"... Hilbert’s program is, in the first instance, a proposal and a research program in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. It was formulated in the early 1920s by German mathematician David Hilbert (1862–1943), and was pursued by him and his collaborators at the University of Göttingen and els ..."
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Hilbert’s program is, in the first instance, a proposal and a research program in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. It was formulated in the early 1920s by German mathematician David Hilbert (1862–1943), and was pursued by him and his collaborators at the University of Göttingen and elsewhere in the 1920s
BERNAYS AND SET THEORY
"... Abstract. We discuss the work of Paul Bernays in set theory, mainly his axiomatization and his use of classes but also his higherorder reflection principles. Paul Isaak Bernays (1888–1977) is an important figure in the development of mathematical logic, being the main bridge between Hilbert and Göd ..."
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Abstract. We discuss the work of Paul Bernays in set theory, mainly his axiomatization and his use of classes but also his higherorder reflection principles. Paul Isaak Bernays (1888–1977) is an important figure in the development of mathematical logic, being the main bridge between Hilbert and Gödel in the intermediate generation and making contributions in proof theory, set theory, and the philosophy of mathematics. Bernays is best known for the twovolume 1934,1939 Grundlagen der Mathematik [39, 40], written solely by him though Hilbert was retained as first author. Going into many reprintings and an eventual second edition thirty years later, this monumental work provided a magisterial exposition of the work of the Hilbert school in the formalization of firstorder logic and in proof theory and the work of Gödel on incompleteness and its surround, including the first complete proof of the Second Incompleteness Theorem. 1 Recent reevaluation of Bernays ’ role actually places him at the center of the development of mathematical logic and Hilbert’s program. 2 But starting in his forties, Bernays did his most individuated, distinctive mathematical work in set theory, providing a timely axiomatization and later applying higherorder reflection principles, and produced a stream of