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14
Ordinary Interactive SmallStep Algorithms
 I,” ACM Trans. Computational Logic
, 2004
"... This is the first in a series of papers extending the Abstract State Machine Thesis — that arbitrary algorithms are behaviorally equivalent to abstract state machines — to algorithms that can interact with their environments during a step rather than only between steps. In the present paper, we desc ..."
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Cited by 31 (16 self)
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This is the first in a series of papers extending the Abstract State Machine Thesis — that arbitrary algorithms are behaviorally equivalent to abstract state machines — to algorithms that can interact with their environments during a step rather than only between steps. In the present paper, we describe, by means of suitable postulates, those interactive algorithms that (1) proceed in discrete, global steps, (2) perform only a bounded amount of work in each step, (3) use only such information from the environment as can be regarded as answers to queries, and (4) never complete a step until all queries from that step have been answered. We indicate how a great many sorts of interaction meet these requirements. We also discuss in detail the structure of queries and replies and the appropriate definition of equivalence of algorithms. Finally, motivated by our considerations concerning queries, we discuss a generalization of firstorder logic in which the arguments of function and relation symbols are not merely tuples of elements but orbits of such tuples under groups of permutations of the argument places.
Information, Divergence and Risk for Binary Experiments
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2009
"... We unify fdivergences, Bregman divergences, surrogate regret bounds, proper scoring rules, cost curves, ROCcurves and statistical information. We do this by systematically studying integral and variational representations of these various objects and in so doing identify their primitives which all ..."
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Cited by 17 (6 self)
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We unify fdivergences, Bregman divergences, surrogate regret bounds, proper scoring rules, cost curves, ROCcurves and statistical information. We do this by systematically studying integral and variational representations of these various objects and in so doing identify their primitives which all are related to costsensitive binary classification. As well as developing relationships between generative and discriminative views of learning, the new machinery leads to tight and more general surrogate regret bounds and generalised Pinsker inequalities relating fdivergences to variational divergence. The new viewpoint also illuminates existing algorithms: it provides a new derivation of Support Vector Machines in terms of divergences and relates Maximum Mean Discrepancy to Fisher Linear Discriminants.
In Some Curved Spaces, One Can Solve NPHard Problems in Polynomial Time
"... In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, Yuri Matiyasevich actively used his knowledge of engineering and physical phenomena to come up with parallelized schemes for solving NPhard problems in polynomial time. In this paper, we describe one such scheme in which we use parallel computation in curved s ..."
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Cited by 6 (6 self)
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In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, Yuri Matiyasevich actively used his knowledge of engineering and physical phenomena to come up with parallelized schemes for solving NPhard problems in polynomial time. In this paper, we describe one such scheme in which we use parallel computation in curved spaces. 1 Introduction and Formulation of the Problem Many practical problems are NPhard. It is well known that many important practical problems are NPhard; see, e.g., [11, 14, 27]. Under the usual hypothesis that P̸=NP, NPhardness has the following intuitive meaning: every algorithm which solves all instances of the corresponding problem requires, for
Interactive smallstep algorithms I: Axiomatization,
, 2006
"... In earlier work, the Abstract State Machine Thesis — that arbitrary algorithms are behaviorally equivalent to abstract state machines — was established for several classes of algorithms, including ordinary, interactive, smallstep algorithms. This was accomplished on the basis of axiomatizations o ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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In earlier work, the Abstract State Machine Thesis — that arbitrary algorithms are behaviorally equivalent to abstract state machines — was established for several classes of algorithms, including ordinary, interactive, smallstep algorithms. This was accomplished on the basis of axiomatizations of these classes of algorithms. Here we extend the axiomatization and, in a companion paper, the proof, to cover interactive smallstep algorithms that are not necessarily ordinary. This means that the algorithms (1) can complete a step without necessarily waiting for replies to all queries from that step and (2) can use not only the environment’s replies but also the order in which the replies were received.
Towards a Definition of an Algorithm
, 2005
"... We define an algorithm to be the set of programs that implement or express that algorithm. The set of all programs is partitioned into equivalence classes. Two programs are equivalent if they are “essentially ” the same program. The set of all equivalence classes is the category of all algorithms. I ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We define an algorithm to be the set of programs that implement or express that algorithm. The set of all programs is partitioned into equivalence classes. Two programs are equivalent if they are “essentially ” the same program. The set of all equivalence classes is the category of all algorithms. In order to explore these ideas, the set of primitive recursive functions is considered. Each primitive recursive function can be described by many labeled binary trees that show how the function is built up. Each tree is like a program that shows how to compute a function. We give relations that say when two such trees are “essentially” the same. An equivalence class of such trees will be called an algorithm.
What Is an Algorithm
 SOFSEM, Lecture Notes in
"... We present a twopart exposition on the notion of algorithm and foundational analyses of computation. The first part is below, and the second is here: ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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We present a twopart exposition on the notion of algorithm and foundational analyses of computation. The first part is below, and the second is here:
A natural axiomatization of Church’s thesis
, 2007
"... The Abstract State Machine Thesis asserts that every classical algorithm is behaviorally equivalent to an abstract state machine. This thesis has been shown to follow from three natural postulates about algorithmic computation. Here, we prove that augmenting those postulates with an additional requ ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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The Abstract State Machine Thesis asserts that every classical algorithm is behaviorally equivalent to an abstract state machine. This thesis has been shown to follow from three natural postulates about algorithmic computation. Here, we prove that augmenting those postulates with an additional requirement regarding basic operations implies Church’s Thesis, namely, that the only numeric functions that can be calculated by effective means are the recursive ones (which are the same, extensionally, as the Turingcomputable numeric functions). In particular, this gives a natural axiomatization of Church’s Thesis, as Gödel and others suggested may be possible.
IntraStep Interaction
"... For a while it seemed possible to pretend that all interaction between an algorithm and its environment occurs interstep, but not anymore. Andreas Blass, ..."
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For a while it seemed possible to pretend that all interaction between an algorithm and its environment occurs interstep, but not anymore. Andreas Blass,
Programmable reconfiguration of Physarum
, 901
"... Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a large cell capable of solving graphtheoretic, optimization and computational geometry problems due to its unique foraging behavior. Also the plasmodium is unique biological substrate that mimics universal storage modification machines, namely the KolmogorovU ..."
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Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a large cell capable of solving graphtheoretic, optimization and computational geometry problems due to its unique foraging behavior. Also the plasmodium is unique biological substrate that mimics universal storage modification machines, namely the KolmogorovUspensky machine. In the plasmodium implementation of the storage modification machine data are represented by sources of nutrients and memory structure by protoplasmic tubes connecting the sources. In laboratory experiments and simulation we demonstrate how the plasmodiumbased storage modification machine can be programmed. We show execution of the following operations with active zone (where computation occurs): merge two active zones, multiple active zone, translate active zone from one data site to another, direct active zone. Results of the paper bear twofold value: they provide a basis for programming unconventional devices based on biological substrates and also shed light on behavioral patterns of the plasmodium. Keywords: Physarum polycephalum, KolmogorovUspensky machine, pattern formation, morphogenesis, graph theory