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24
A Congruence Theorem for Structured Operational Semantics With Predicates
, 1993
"... . We proposed a syntactical format, the path format, for structured operational semantics in which predicates may occur. We proved that strong bisimulation is a congruence for all the operators that can be defined within the path format. To show that this format is useful we provided many examples t ..."
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Cited by 108 (5 self)
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. We proposed a syntactical format, the path format, for structured operational semantics in which predicates may occur. We proved that strong bisimulation is a congruence for all the operators that can be defined within the path format. To show that this format is useful we provided many examples that we took from the literature about CCS, CSP, and ACP; they do satisfy the path format but no formats proposed by others. The examples include concepts like termination, convergence, divergence, weak bisimulation, a zero object, side conditions, functions, real time, discrete time, sequencing, negative premises, negative conclusions, and priorities (or a combination of these notions). Key Words & Phrases: structured operational semantics, term deduction system, transition system specification, structured state system, labelled transition system, strong bisimulation, congruence theorem, predicate. 1980 Mathematics Subject Classification (1985 Revision): 68Q05, 68Q55. CR Categories: D.3.1...
Turning SOS Rules into Equations
, 1994
"... Many process algebras are defined by structural operational semantics (SOS). Indeed, most such definitions are nicely structured and fit the GSOS format of [15]. We give a procedure for converting any GSOS language definition to a finite complete equational axiom system (possibly with one infinit ..."
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Cited by 87 (20 self)
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Many process algebras are defined by structural operational semantics (SOS). Indeed, most such definitions are nicely structured and fit the GSOS format of [15]. We give a procedure for converting any GSOS language definition to a finite complete equational axiom system (possibly with one infinitary induction principle) which precisely characterizes strong bisimulation of processes.
A brief history of process algebra
 Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2004
"... Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The a ..."
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Cited by 57 (1 self)
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Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author gives his personal views on these matters. He also considers the present situation, and states some challenges for the future.
Finite equational bases in process algebra: Results and open questions
 Processes, Terms and Cycles: Steps on the Road to Infinity, LNCS 3838
, 2005
"... Abstract. Van Glabbeek (1990) presented the linear time/branching time spectrum of behavioral equivalences for finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes. He studied these semantics in the setting of the basic process algebra BCCSP, and tried to give finite complete axiomatizations for them. ..."
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Cited by 28 (19 self)
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Abstract. Van Glabbeek (1990) presented the linear time/branching time spectrum of behavioral equivalences for finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes. He studied these semantics in the setting of the basic process algebra BCCSP, and tried to give finite complete axiomatizations for them. Obtaining such axiomatizations in concurrency theory often turns out to be difficult, even in the setting of simple languages like BCCSP. This has raised a host of open questions that have been the subject of intensive research in recent years. Most of these questions have been settled over BCCSP, either positively by giving a finite complete axiomatization, or negatively by proving that such an axiomatization does not exist. Still some open questions remain. This paper reports on these results, and on the stateoftheart in axiomatizations for richer process algebras with constructs like sequential and parallel composition. 1
Timing and Causality in Process Algebra
 Acta Informatica
, 1992
"... . There has been considerable controversy in concurrency theory between the `interleaving' and `true concurrency' schools. The former school advocates associating a transition system with a process which captures concurrent execution via the interleaving of occurrences; the latter adopts more comple ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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. There has been considerable controversy in concurrency theory between the `interleaving' and `true concurrency' schools. The former school advocates associating a transition system with a process which captures concurrent execution via the interleaving of occurrences; the latter adopts more complex semantic structures to avoid reducing concurrency to interleaving. In this paper we show that the two approaches are not irreconcilable. We define a timed process algebra where occurrences are associated with intervals of time, and give it a transition system semantics. This semantics has many of the advantages of the interleaving approach; the algebra admits an expansion theorem, and bisimulation semantics can be used as usual. Our transition systems, however, incorporate timing information, and this enables us to express concurrency: merely adding timing appropriately generalises transition systems to asynchronous transition systems, showing that time gives a link between true concurrenc...
A menagerie of nonfinitely based process semantics over BPA*—from ready simulation to completed traces
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1998
"... Fokkink and Zantema ((1994) Computer Journal 37:259–267) have shown that bisimulation equivalence has a finite equational axiomatization over the language of Basic Process Algebra with the binary Kleene star operation (BPA ∗). In the light of this positive result on the mathematical tractability of ..."
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Cited by 24 (19 self)
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Fokkink and Zantema ((1994) Computer Journal 37:259–267) have shown that bisimulation equivalence has a finite equational axiomatization over the language of Basic Process Algebra with the binary Kleene star operation (BPA ∗). In the light of this positive result on the mathematical tractability of bisimulation equivalence over BPA ∗ , a natural question to ask is whether any other (pre)congruence relation in van Glabbeek’s linear time/branching time spectrum is finitely (in)equationally axiomatizable over it. In this paper, we prove that, unlike bisimulation equivalence, none of the preorders and equivalences in van Glabbeek’s linear time/branching time spectrum, whose discriminating power lies in between that of ready simulation and that of completed traces, has a finite equational axiomatization. This we achieve by exhibiting a family of (in)equivalences that holds in ready simulation semantics, the finest semantics that we consider, whose instances cannot all be proven by means of any finite set of (in)equations
Ready Simulation, Bisimulation, and the Semantics of CCSLike Languages
, 1993
"... The questions of program comparison  asking when two programs are equal, or when one is a suitable substitute for another  are central in the semantics and verification of programs. It is not obvious what the definitions of comparison should be for parallel programs, even in the relatively sim ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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The questions of program comparison  asking when two programs are equal, or when one is a suitable substitute for another  are central in the semantics and verification of programs. It is not obvious what the definitions of comparison should be for parallel programs, even in the relatively simple case of core languages for concurrency, such as the kernel language of Milner's CCS. We introduce some criteria for judging notions of program comparison. Our basic notion is that of a congruence: two programs are equivalent with respect to a language L and a set of observations O iff they cannot be distinguished by any observation in O in any context of L. Bisimulation, the notion of program equivalence ordinarily used with CCS, is finer than CCS congruence: there are two programs which are not bisimilar, but cannot be told apart by CCS contexts. We explore the possibility of making bisimulation into a congruence. We CCS is defined by a set of structured operational rules. We introduc...
Nested Semantics over Finite Trees are Equationally Hard
, 2003
"... This paper studies nested simulation and nested trace semantics over the language BCCSP, a basic formalism to express finite process behaviour. It is shown that none of these semantics affords finite (in)equational axiomatizations over BCCSP. In particular, for each of the nested semantics studied ..."
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Cited by 15 (11 self)
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This paper studies nested simulation and nested trace semantics over the language BCCSP, a basic formalism to express finite process behaviour. It is shown that none of these semantics affords finite (in)equational axiomatizations over BCCSP. In particular, for each of the nested semantics studied in this paper, the collection of sound, closed (in)equations over a singleton action set is not finitely based.
An Equational Axiomatization for MultiExit Iteration
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... This paper presents an equational axiomatization of bisimulation equivalence over the language of Basic Process Algebra (BPA) with multiexit iteration. Multiexit iteration is a generalization of the standard binary Kleene star operation that allows for the specification of agents that, up to bis ..."
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Cited by 13 (8 self)
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This paper presents an equational axiomatization of bisimulation equivalence over the language of Basic Process Algebra (BPA) with multiexit iteration. Multiexit iteration is a generalization of the standard binary Kleene star operation that allows for the specification of agents that, up to bisimulation equivalence, are solutions of systems of recursion equations of the form Xn = PnX 1 + Qn where n is a positive integer, and the P i and the Q i are process terms. The addition of multiexit iteration to BPA yields a more expressive language than that obtained by augmenting BPA with the standard binary Kleene star (BPA # ). As a consequence, the proof of completeness of the proposed equational axiomatization for this language, although standard in its general structure, is much more involved than that for BPA # . An expressiveness hierarchy for the family of kexit iteration operators proposed by Bergstra, Bethke and Ponse is also o#ered.
A Complete Equational Axiomatization for MPA with String Iteration
 DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE, AALBORG UNIVERSITY
, 1995
"... We study equational axiomatizations of bisimulation equivalence for the language obtained by extending Milner's basic CCS with string iteration. String iteration is a variation on the original binary version of the Kleene star operation p*q obtained by restricting the first argument to be a none ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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We study equational axiomatizations of bisimulation equivalence for the language obtained by extending Milner's basic CCS with string iteration. String iteration is a variation on the original binary version of the Kleene star operation p*q obtained by restricting the first argument to be a nonempty sequence of atomic actions. We show that, for every positive integer k, bisimulation equivalence over the set of processes in this language with loops of length at most k is finitely axiomatizable. We also offer a countably infinite equational theory that completely axiomatizes bisimulation equivalence over the whole language. We prove that this result cannot be improved upon by showing that no finite equational axiomatization of bisimulation equivalence over basic CCS with string iteration can exist, unless the set of actions is empty.